Abin da mai mahimmanci ya kamata ya san game da tsarin kula da ƙasa na LADM

An san shi kamar LADM zuwa Samfurin Mulki na Ƙasa, wanda ya zama ISO 19152 daga 2012.

Ba software bane, amma samfurin tsari wanda ke nuna dangantakar tsakanin mutane da ƙasa; Daidaita abin da alama a cikin kowace ƙasa na da bambanci; yana da wani abu na kayan abu wanda a cikin 2014 Cadastre an dauke su azastasto. Yana buƙatar kaucewa maganin sakewa da kuma sake aiwatar da wannan aikin ta hanyar tushe wanda zai iya daidaitawa kuma yana taimakawa cibiyoyi don sadarwa tare da sabis na daidaita a cikin ɓangaren duniya.

Sane da cewa geographers da mutane nasaba geomatics san yadda za a fassara model bukatar, yin wannan motsa jiki don bayanin asalin wannan misali daga lokacin da ya aka conceptualized kamar yadda CCDM.

Yana da ban sha'awa cewa LADM a wani ɓangare na hayaki mai sauƙi yana nuna cewa mulkin ƙasar shine batu wanda ba a iya yin amfani da ita a wannan lokaci, ba ya bambanta a dubban shekaru:

Kullum yana kunshe ne a cikin dangantakar dake tsakanin mutum da ƙasa. Komai da al'adun inda aka bincikar, tarihi ya nuna mana wani abu irin wannan: mutane, kamar misalin Adamu da Hauwa'u a cikin comunero jihar suna wakilta sarrafa cikin gonar Aidan, suna zama a ciki, alhakin abin da ke can, da kuma hane-hane ku ci wani itacen da expropriation dokoki, idan ba su bi.

An kira wannan inabin ne mai suna BAUnits, tare da dangantaka da haƙƙin haƙƙin (RRR) tare da masu sha'awar, wanda ya danganta da mutane (Jam'iyyar) ta hanyar Gida kuma a wasu nau'o'in wakilcin mahaɗan sararin samaniya (Ƙananan Units).

LADM

Gaskiyar ita ce, kamar yadda tsarin tsarin mallakar dukiya ke gaba, akwai lokuta masu rikitarwa waɗanda suke a matakin yin rajistar kasancewa a koyaushe amma suna jira don kwatanta wakilinsu su ne lokuta irin su:

A ma'aurata suka mallaka, a wata dangantaka 60% - 40% na mai kyau da cewa shi ne mai 23 Apartment a 4 kasa na ginin da kuma ya hada da hakkin ya biyu parking sarari a cikin ginshiki 1 da dama a cikin gida tare da duk mazauna daga gine-gine zuwa ɗakin kowane wuri da filin barbecue a mataki na takwas. Shar'ance yana da sauki, kawai irin amma mu tambayi kanmu ta yaya za mu Model a cikin littãfi a 3D, ko a kalla 2.5 D.

Tare da LADM an nemi, cewa hanyar yin la'akari da tsarin kula da haƙƙin ƙasa a kayan aikin IT daidai yake. Saboda kasuwancin yana da iri ɗaya, ya bambanta a cikin ƙananan ma'auni shi ne hanyar da hanyoyin da suke da ƙayyadaddun hankali ta ƙasa ko horo. Kwayar da ake amfani da ita ta nuna cewa LADM wani nau'i ne na astral kawai don masana kimiyyar kwamfuta, watakila saboda ana daidaita shi a cikin UML daga ɗalibai da dangantaka, duk da haka yana da wani ɓangare na alhakin binciken da aka tsara a cikin 2014 Cadastre: «Dogon salon kwaikwayo».

Sabili da haka, wani samfurin nazarin halittu na geospatial mayar da hankali a kan manyan ayyukan gwamnati:

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  • Ci gaba da Object - Matsalar - Amfani da dangantaka daidai (P - RRR - RO)
  • da kuma samar da bayani game da wannan rikodin.

Har ila yau da model neman sauƙaƙe standardization fasaha matsa lamba ne a daya hannun da tayin (Internet, na sarari bayanai, daidaita model, lasisi bude tushen da kuma GIS) kuma abu na biyu a bukatar sabis cewa] aukaka wannan fasahar (gwamnati lantarki, ci gaban ci gaba, takardun lantarki da haɗakar bayanan jama'a da kuma tsarin). Daya daga cikin abũbuwan amfãni daga LADM ne cewa shi za a iya saba da kowace kasa, ko da kuwa su dokokin, da hukumomi da rabuwar cadastre da rajista, ko da irin kayan aiki da za a yi amfani da aiki da kai. Ya nuna misali azuzuwan, da kuma can za ka iya yin takamaiman azuzuwan ga kasar amma a karshen manufar da aka goyan bayan.

Babban nasara na LADM shine a haɗa da aikin da aka yi ta hanyar bincike tare da irin abubuwan da aka tsara na yau da kullum irin su LINZ da LANDxml Australia / New Zealand, Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Ƙasa (tsohon FGDC) daidaitawa na Hukumar Turai akan Kimiyya da Fasaha (COST), kwamitin ISO / TC211 na OGC da kuma, a sama da duka, yin amfani da lobbying a yankunan da ya faru. Kuma gagarumin ɓangare na yin daidaituwa shine ƙaddamarwa ko ƙaddamarwa ga abin da wasu suka riga sun ƙware.

A kadan tarihi

La Fig haife shi a 2002, kokarin appropriating wannan} o} arin da lobbying tare da 'yan manufofi, irin yanayin saukan wahayi zuwa gare su da kuma IDE wuya ra'ayi shan game 2003. Kamar haka a takaice matakai da LADM ke ta daban-daban lokacin da gabatar, tattaunawa da kuma karbuwa daga daban-daban versions shan da sunan birnin inda suka kasance presentnadas, don zama da ISO 19152 2012 na:

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  • A watan Afrilu na 2002 yiwuwar yin wani abu an tashe shi a karon farko.
  • A watan Satumba na 2002 aka gabatar a cikin OGC da 1 version da aka kira Noordwijk, sa'an nan kuma a Delft a cikin COST Workshop.
  • A watan Maris na 2003 da 2 version da aka kira Paris, wannan shekarar a cikin FIG kuma don wannan rana da OGC sanar da LPI
  • A watan Satumba na 2003 ya gabatar da 3 da ake kira Brno, a Poland. Domin wannan kwanan nan an ƙara kariyar kariyar kariyar ƙananan digiri na 3D. Haka kuma an gabatar da shi a ma'aikatar Bayani na Ƙasar Turai EULIS.
  • A 2004 da 4 version da aka kira Bamberg, ana gabatar da su a cikin siffofin a Jamus da Kenya.
  • A 2005 ita ce 5 version da aka kira Cairo, a cikin launi na FIG na Misira. Daga wannan lokacin, an tsara tsarin da hukumar OGC ta gudanar ta hanyar kungiyar ISO / TC 211; Kodayake wannan kwamitin ya wallafa fiye da ka'idojin 50 mai ban sha'awa a filin wasa, LADM tana ɗaukan daga nan guda biyu: Girmomi da Topology). Har ila yau, wannan kwanan wata ya zama bayanin ƙayyadaddun bayanan da aka samo.
  • 2006 tana gabatar da 6 version da ake kira Moscow, wanda shine wannan fassarar wadda muka yi magana a Geofumadas a cikin labarin «misali misali don cadastre«. Wannan ya haɗa da Ginin RRR da Sashe na ɓangaren da ke cikin kundin launi.

Daga 2006 zuwa 2008 ƙoƙarin da aka mayar da hankali a kan ƙwarewa a matsayin misali.

  • A watan Oktoba na 2006 ya riga ya gabatar da Version 1.0 ko da yake an kira wannan ranar CCDM (Core Cadastral Domain Model).

Hanyar sanya shi matsayin ma'auni na ISO, ta hanyar tarurruka daban-daban na tattaunawa, tsawo da ƙayyadadden ƙayyadaddun fuka; ya ƙare a 2012 ta hanyar rubutun digiri na Chrit Lemmen a cikin 2012.

Har ila yau, akwai wasu ƙasashe da dama sun riga sun karbi ka'ida, kodayake yawancin suna ci gaba. Bayan wannan standardization kokarin ya kasance wani tsari na aiwatar da saukowa zuwa gaskiya, wanda ya sanya links tare da JRC (hadin gwiwa Research Center of Turai Hukumar) da kuma Majalisar Dinkin Duniya-mazauninsu (United Nations Agency for Human ƙauyuka) don nishadantarwa a ayyukan dangantaka da gudanarwa na yankuna. Tare da wannan da kuke gani misalai aiwatuwa a kasashe daban-daban, excelling da hali na STDM (Social ranar Domain Model) yana dauke da wani specialization na LADM, da FAO da aka da Flossola da Honduras da SIGIT samfur yanzu neman hawa zuwa SINAP.

Bayani na Model

Aikin wannan labarin shi ne cewa muna ƙoƙari mu fahimci asalin LADM bisa tsarin makirci. Ina ƙoƙarin amfani da launuka masu kama da nau'i na samfurin, wanda ya riga ya kasance a cikin daidaitattun ka'idar da aka rarraba cikin rawaya cikin sashin shari'a, a cikin kore mutumin, a cikin abubuwa masu launin shudi, a cikin ruwan hoda da topography kuma a cikin launi mai zurfi. Tabbatar da amfani da gumaka zai kawo mana dangantaka ta tarayya amma na nace; Dole ne mu koyi fahimtar samfurori. Ta hanyar zubar da linzamin kwamfuta akan abubuwa, ana nuna ma'anarsa.

[hsmap sunan = »yaro»]

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Babban ɗayan.

Makirci ya fara ne daga dangantaka tsakanin manyan ɗigogi uku:

  • Maƙasudin (Subject), kamar yadda aka ƙayyade a matsayin Jam'iyyar
  • Manufar doka, wadda a cikin wannan yanayin ta kawar da yanayin da ake ciki na ɓangaren littattafai da kuma ɗaukar shi zuwa ga abin da ke yankin. A cikin daidaitattun ana kira BAUnit, da jigon ta'aziyya ta Geometry.
  • Dokar, dangantaka da ke danganta mutumin tare da abu, a cikin daidaitattun matsayin RRR.

Samfurin ya danganta su ta hanyar tushen. Wannan na iya zama takardun shaida ko gaskiya; gaskiya ne kawai. Sauran lamari ne masu yiwuwa:

  • Ba wai kawai akwai mai shi ba, amma ƙungiyar magada, ɗaya daga cikinsu yana kurkuku don rayuwa,
  • Wannan mãkirci yana da ɗaki, amma yana kan takarda kuma ba shi da wani zaɓi,
  • Ba a ƙaddamar da yanki ba, amma kawai kashi-kashi na dama ... daya daga cikin 'yan uwan ​​ya riga ya sayar da hakkinsa zuwa wasu mutane hudu,
  • Wannan yanki da aka sayar yana da hasumiya ta wayar hannu tare da uwar garken isa,
  • Wani ɓangare na mãkirci yana shafar yankin da aka kare tare da tsarin mulki na musamman,
  • Daya daga cikin 'yan uwan ​​shi ne ƙananan, don haka shi ne mahaifiyar mahaifiyarsa ...

Ko ko taswirar ko akwai, ko ko doka ce, ko ko dai daidai ne da hanyoyin, gaskiya ne a can. Saboda haka, LADM ta yarda da wannan gaskiyar ta hanyar sarrafawa, ta nuna halin halin mutum da na shari'a.

Shahararrun jam'iyyun (Jam'iyyar)

Duba cewa a nan an kara batun "batun" mai sauƙi ga mutane daban-daban da suka shiga cikin ma'amaloli. Don haka muna da:

ladam - kwafi (2)

  • Mutumin mutum
  • Ƙungiyar shari'a, kamar yadda yake a cikin wata hukuma ko kamfanin
  • Ƙungiyar mutane, irin su batun ƙwararrun 'yan asalin, ƙungiyoyi, ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, da dai sauransu.
  • Mutumin ko ma'aikata wanda ya tabbatar da hakki, kamar shari'ar lauya
  • Mutumin ko ma'aikata wanda ya tabbatar da jinginar, kamar yadda yake a cikin banki ko ma'aikata na kudi
  • Mutumin da yake yin takardar shaidar, kamar mai binciken.

Halin 'yancin (RRR)ladam - kwafi (3)

A nan, a cikin al'adun gargajiya na al'ada, ba wani nau'i ne kawai ba. Amma samfurin ya kara don a iya daidaita yanayin da ke tsakanin dangantaka da doka da nauyin gudanarwa:

  • Jinginar gida ko damuwa
  • Shafuka, wanda zai iya kasancewa Ƙuntatawa, Halayen da Sharuɗɗa.
  • Ma'anar haɗin kai tare da tushen.

The Object of Law

ladam - kwafi (4)

A nan akwai nau'o'i daban-daban na azuzuwan, amma duk wani ɓangare na abin da ake kira ƙungiyar kulawa (BAUnit). Duba cewa wannan abstraction ne na abu, ko muna da taswirar ko ba mu da ko a'a.

Wannan shi ne saboda a gaskiya akwai wani abu, wanda za'a rubuta shi a hankali amma BAUnit wani ɓangare na wannan kuma a cikin farko shine alamun "ba a ba da izini ba":

  • Abinda ba na ainihi bane, wato, abin da za a iya cire daga mãkirci, irin su yanayin wayar hannu, eriya tarho, da dai sauransu.
  • Mai ganowa na asali na asali
  • Shafin da ba'a ba da kyauta ba
  • Adireshin jiki wanda yake gano gidan a cikin ginin, kuma wannan zai iya wuce matakin ƙauren a cikin ginin.

Sa'an nan kuma akwai BAUnits da ke da ƙwarewar sararin samaniya, daga cikinsu akwai:

  • Ƙirƙiri marar kyau (wani ɓangare na ƙungiya), wanda zai iya zama ma'ana, saitin maki da iyaka.
  • Tsarin da aka tsara, wanda zai iya kasancewa ɗaya, ko kuma da dama dangane da dukiya ɗaya.

Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan amfani da yin amfani da samfurin LADM shi ne cewa babu wani bayanan da ba shi da kyau, babu wani abu mai kyau ko maras kyau, amma ba gaskiya bane. Ƙungiyoyin gudanarwa sun wanzu kuma suna iya inganta daidaituwa daga:

  • Gidauniyar masu biyan haraji na wani gari wanda aka yi rantsuwa kawai a cikin Excel.
  • Daga baya za su iya samun haɗin kai, tare da abin da ƙwararrun digiri ya kasance na farko amma aiki mai mahimmanci.
  • Sa'an nan kuma zaku iya yin mãkirci, amma ba tare da cikakkiyar bayani ba.

Kowane abu yana rufe a cikin tantancewa na fili na mãkirci, tare da matakai daban-daban na wakilci don wani dalili mai sauki "a cikin jiki na gaske abu ne kawai". Yana da muhimmanci cewa, ba kawai zaman doka, jama'a dokar amma kamar yadda ya faru da wata kare yankin ko na sarari abokai a tsare a cikin daban-daban xaukaka kamar rigyawa yanki haddasa wani affectation na mãkirci da aka nuna.

ladm - kwafiAbubuwan da ke cikin abu.

Wannan jerin jerin nau'o'i na musamman, wanda ya bada damar gano nau'i daban-daban na wakilcin topographical na wannan abu, wannan shine dalilin da ya sa aka danganta su da asalin.

A nan mahimman abu shi ne cewa ƙananan ma'auni na auna shine ma'ana, wanda shine alhakin mai binciken. Suna bayanin bambancin yanayi na 2D da 3D.

Idan akwai nau'i biyu, wani ma'ana, to, iyakar a cikin tashoshin kumburi da kuma siffar a lissafin rufewa. Haka kuma yake don 3D kodayake akwai wata harkar da ta shafi 3D ba tare da hada fuskoki ba.

Hanyoyin wakiltar zane-zane ya fito ne ta wurin tushen, la'akari da cewa akwai wata takarda da za ta kasance mafi mahimmanci da ba za a iya kusantar da shi a ɓangaren mahallin ba.

A ƙarshe, LADM misali ne wanda dole ne a sani. Wannan abu ne na kayan tarihi wanda aka tashe shi a cikin Ƙasar ta 2014 wanda muka riga muka isa; koda yake tare da nasarorin da yawa a cikin fasaha da ilimi tare da kalubalen da yawa a cikin sashen kulawa da tsarin tsarin.

8 tana nunawa "Abin da ya kamata mutum ya sani game da tsarin kula da layin LADM"

  1. ba ya ba ni bayanin lokacin da na motsa linzamin kwamfuta ta gumaka

  2. Sannu, za ka iya samun gurbin da ya bayyana a cikin hoton

  3. A gaskiya, samfurin yana dacewa da ƙasar. Idan wata ƙasa ta yanke shawara cewa wasu bayanan ba za su yi amfani da shi ba ... to ba su amfani da shi.
    Abu mai mahimmanci ita ce samfurin samfurin yana amfani da daidaitattun bayanan da ke amfani.

  4. Idan da wuya a Peru ya shiga gida don samun bayanai na bayanan, samun duk bayanan da aka nema a cikin LADM ya fi rikitarwa. Kuma har yanzu mafi wuya a dauki bayanai daga gonaki a Callao.

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