Abin da mai mahimmanci ya kamata ya san game da tsarin kula da ƙasa na LADM

An san shi kamar LADM zuwa Samfurin Mulki na Ƙasa, wanda ya zama ISO 19152 daga 2012.

Ba software ba ce, amma samfurin tunani ne wanda ke nuna alaƙar mutane da ƙasar; daidaita abin da alama a kowace ƙasa ta bambanta da ƙwarewa; wani tsari ne na kayan abu wanda a cikin Cadastre 2014 aka dauke shi azaman abu mara kyau. Yana neman kaucewa sake shigarwa da sake aiwatar da ayyukan guda ɗaya ta hanyar tushe wanda zai iya haɓaka kuma yana sauƙaƙa wa cibiyoyi iya sadarwa tare da daidaitattun sabis a cikin yanayin duniya.

Sane da cewa geographers da mutane nasaba geomatics san yadda za a fassara model bukatar, yin wannan motsa jiki don bayanin asalin wannan misali daga lokacin da ya aka conceptualized kamar yadda CCDM.

Yana da ban sha'awa cewa LADM a wani ɓangare na hayaki mai sauƙi yana nuna cewa mulkin ƙasar shine batu wanda ba a iya yin amfani da ita a wannan lokaci, ba ya bambanta a dubban shekaru:

Ya kasance koyaushe yana da alaƙar da ke tsakanin mutum da ƙasa. Duk al'adun da aka binciko su, tarihi yana nuna mana wani abu makamancin haka: Mutane, kamar batun Adam da Hauwa'u, waɗanda a cikin ƙasa ɗaya wakilai ne don gudanar da gonar Adnin, tare da haƙƙin kasancewa a ciki, nauyi a kan abin da ke wurin, da hane-hane kan rashin cin itaciyar da aka haramta da dokokin ƙaura idan ba a bi doka ba.

An kira wannan inabin ne mai suna BAUnits, tare da dangantaka da haƙƙin haƙƙin (RRR) tare da masu sha'awar, wanda ya danganta da mutane (Jam'iyyar) ta hanyar Gida kuma a wasu nau'o'in wakilcin mahaɗan sararin samaniya (Ƙananan Units).

LADM

Gaskiyar ita ce, kamar yadda tsarin tsarin mallakar dukiya ke gaba, akwai lokuta masu rikitarwa waɗanda suke a matakin yin rajistar kasancewa a koyaushe amma suna jira don kwatanta wakilinsu su ne lokuta irin su:

Ma'aurata waɗanda ke da alaƙar 60% - 40% na kadara wacce ta ƙunshi gida 23 a hawa na huɗu na gini, kuma hakan ya haɗa da haƙƙin filin ajiye motoci guda biyu a cikin ginshikin 4 da kuma haƙƙin mallaka tare da duk mazaunan daga ginin zuwa harabar kowane matakin da yankin gasa a hawa na takwas. A shari'ance yana da sauki, an rubuta shi ne kawai amma bari mu tambayi kanmu yadda muke kwatancen sa a cikin 1D cadastre, ko kuma aƙalla a cikin 3 D.

Tare da LADM ana neman cewa hanyar yin samfurin ra'ayi game da gudanar da haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa a cikin kayan aikin kwamfuta iri ɗaya ne. Saboda kasuwancin iri ɗaya ne, ya bambanta zuwa kaɗan ƙarami shine matsakaici da hanyoyin da ke ƙayyade ta ƙasa ko horo. Thearamar al'ada don ɗaukar samfura yana da alama cewa LADM ƙawancen taurari ne kawai ga masana kimiyyar kwamfuta, watakila saboda an tsara shi a cikin UML daga azuzuwan da alaƙa, amma, mai binciken da aka gabatar a cikin aikin ɓangare ne na alhakin. 2014 Cadastre: «Dogon rai yin tallan kayan zane».

Sabili da haka, wani samfurin nazarin halittu na geospatial mayar da hankali a kan manyan ayyukan gwamnati:

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  •  Kiyaye Nasihu - Batu - Sabunta dangantakar shari'a (P - RRR - RO)
  • da kuma samar da bayani game da wannan rikodin.

Hakanan samfurin yana neman sauƙaƙe daidaitaccen matsin lamba na fasaha wanda ya kasance, a gefe ɗaya, tayin (Intanit, ɗakunan bayanai na sararin samaniya, daidaitattun samfuran, lasisin buɗe tushen da GIS) kuma, a ɗaya hannun, buƙatar sabis ɗin da ke amfani da wannan fasahar (gwamnati lantarki, ci gaba mai ɗorewa, takaddun lantarki da haɗin bayanan jama'a da tsarin). Ofaya daga cikin fa'idodin LADM shine cewa za'a iya daidaita shi zuwa kowace ƙasa, ba tare da la'akari da dokokinta ba, rarrabuwar ma'aikata na cadastre da rajista, ko nau'in kayan aikin da za'a yi amfani da su don sarrafa kansu. Yana ba da shawarar azuzuwan daidaitacce, kuma daga can za ku iya yin azuzuwan takamaiman azuzuwan amma a ƙarshe batun ya dace.

Babban nasara na LADM shine a haɗa da aikin da aka yi ta hanyar bincike tare da irin abubuwan da aka tsara na yau da kullum irin su LINZ da LANDxml Australia / New Zealand, Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Ƙasa (tsohon FGDC) daidaitawa na Hukumar Turai akan Kimiyya da Fasaha (COST), da ISO / TC211 kwamitin na OGC kuma musamman yin kira a wurare masu tasiri sosai. Kuma shine abu mai wuya game da yin mizani shine sanyawa ko sake dawo da abin da wasu suka riga suka kware.

 

A kadan tarihi

La Fig an haife shi a 2002, yana ƙoƙari ya dace da wannan ƙoƙari da zauren tare da abubuwan da aka gabatar kwanan nan kamar batun Inspire da ra'ayin IDE wanda ya riƙe a kusa da 2003. Don haka, a takaice matakan LADM suna wucewa ta lokuta daban-daban na gabatarwa, tattaunawa da daidaitawar abubuwa daban-daban sigar da ta ɗauki sunan garin da aka gabatar da su, har sai da suka zama ISO 19152 na 2012:

2014-01-12 18.17.40

  •  A watan Afrilu na 2002 yiwuwar yin wani abu an tashe shi a karon farko.
  • A watan Satumba na 2002 aka gabatar a cikin OGC da 1 version da aka kira Noordwijk, sa'an nan kuma a Delft a cikin COST Workshop.
  • A watan Maris na 2003 sigar 2 da ake kira Paris, waccan shekarar a cikin FIG kuma don wannan kwanan nan OGC ta sanar da LPI
  • A watan Satumbar 2003 sigar 3 mai suna Brno ta fito a cikin Poland. Don wannan kwanan nan an ƙara faɗaɗa na 3D multipurpose cadastre. An kuma gabatar da shi a Ofishin Bayanai na Landasashen Turai EULIS.
  • A 2004 da 4 version da aka kira Bamberg, ana gabatar da su a cikin siffofin a Jamus da Kenya.
  • A shekarar 2005 fasalin 5 aka kira shi Alkahira, a taron FIG a Misira. Zuwa wannan, matakan da OGC ke gudanarwa ta hanyar Kwamitin ISO / TC 211 an hade su; Kodayake wannan kwamitin ya buga ƙa'idodi sama da 50 na babban sha'awa a cikin yanayin yanayin ƙasa, LADM yana ɗauka daga nan guda biyu: Geometry da Topology). Hakanan don wannan kwanan wata ya zama cikakkun bayanan bayanan Inspire.
  • A cikin 2006 an gabatar da nau'in 6 da ake kira Moscow, wanda shine wannan sigar da muka yi magana a cikin Geofumadas a cikin labarin «misali misali don cadastre«. Wannan ya riga ya haɗa da Ginin RRR kuma an yi bayanin ɓangaren kunshin daban a cikin duka azuzuwan shunayya.

Daga 2006 zuwa 2008 ƙoƙarin da aka mayar da hankali a kan ƙwarewa a matsayin misali.

  • A watan Oktoba na 2006 ya riga ya gabatar da Version 1.0 ko da yake an kira wannan ranar CCDM (Core Cadastral Domain Model).

Hanyar sanya shi matsayin ma'auni na ISO, ta hanyar tarurruka daban-daban na tattaunawa, tsawo da ƙayyadadden ƙayyadaddun fuka; ya ƙare a 2012 ta hanyar rubutun digiri na Chrit Lemmen a cikin 2012.

Akwai sauran jan aiki a gaba, kasashe da dama sun riga sun karbi mizanin, kodayake da sauran rina a kaba. Bayan wannan ƙoƙarin daidaitawa, akwai aiwatar da aiwatarwa da saukowa kan gaskiya, inda aka yi haɗin gwiwa tare da JRC (Cibiyar Nazarin Hadin gwiwa ta Hukumar Turai) da UN-HABITAT (Hukumar Kula da foran Adam ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya) don aiwatar da su a cikin ayyukan. mai nasaba da kula da yankuna. Tare da wannan, misalai sun kasance a cikin ƙasashe daban-daban, batun STDM (Social Tenure Domain Model) a tsaye, wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin ƙwarewar LADM, a ɓangaren FAO akwai Flossola kuma a Honduras samfurin SIGIT wanda yanzu yake neman haɓaka zuwa SINAP.

 

Bayani na Model

Aikin wannan labarin shine muna ƙoƙari mu fahimci asalin LADM bisa tsarin zane. Ina kokarin amfani da launuka masu kama da azuzuwan samfurin, wadanda tuni a cikin mizanin da aka yarda suka raba bangaren shari'a a launin rawaya, mutum a kore, abubuwa masu launin shudi, yanayin kasa da ruwan hoda da kuma jawabai a cikin shunayya. Tabbatar cewa amfani da gumaka zai kawo mana wasu alaƙa ta hanyar tarayya amma nace; dole ne mu koyi fahimtar samfuran. Yin shawagi a kan abubuwa yana nuna ma'anar su.

[sunan hsmap = »ladm»]

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Babban ɗayan.

Makirci ya fara ne daga dangantaka tsakanin manyan ɗigogi uku:

  • Maƙasudin (Subject), kamar yadda aka ƙayyade a matsayin Jam'iyyar
  • Manufar doka, wadda a cikin wannan yanayin ta kawar da yanayin da ake ciki na ɓangaren littattafai da kuma ɗaukar shi zuwa ga abin da ke yankin. A cikin daidaitattun ana kira BAUnit, da jigon ta'aziyya ta Geometry.
  • Dokar, dangantaka da ke danganta mutumin tare da abu, a cikin daidaitattun matsayin RRR.

Misalin ya haɗa su ta hanyar tushe (Source). Wannan na iya zama shirin gaskiya ko na gaskiya; gaskiya ce kawai. Sauran su ne yiwuwar:

  • Ba wai kawai akwai mai shi ba, amma ƙungiyar magada, ɗaya daga cikinsu yana kurkuku don rayuwa,
  • Wannan mãkirci yana da ɗaki, amma yana kan takarda kuma ba shi da wani zaɓi,
  • Ba a ƙaddara wannan yanki ba, amma kashi ɗari kawai na doka ... ɗayan thean uwan ​​ya riga ya sayar da haƙƙinsa ga ƙarin mutane huɗu,
  • Wannan yanki da aka sayar yana da hasumiya ta wayar hannu tare da uwar garken isa,
  • Wani ɓangare na mãkirci yana shafar yankin da aka kare tare da tsarin mulki na musamman,
  • Ofaya daga cikin 'yan uwan ​​ƙarami ne, don haka mahaifiyarsa ta gay tana wakilta bisa doka ...

Ko babu taswira, ko babu ko halal ne, ko babu shi daidai da hanyoyin, gaskiya ne yana nan. Saboda haka, LADM ya yarda da cewa za a rubuta gaskiyar a cikin yanayin sarrafawa, yana nuna yanayin zahiri da na doka.

 

Shahararrun jam'iyyun (Jam'iyyar)

Lura cewa a nan "batun" mai sauƙi an faɗaɗa shi ga mutane daban-daban da ke cikin ma'amala. Don haka muna da:

ladam - kwafi (2)

  • Mutumin mutum
  • Ƙungiyar shari'a, kamar yadda yake a cikin wata hukuma ko kamfanin
  • Ƙungiyar mutane, irin su batun ƙwararrun 'yan asalin, ƙungiyoyi, ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, da dai sauransu.
  • Mutumin ko ma'aikata wanda ya tabbatar da hakki, kamar shari'ar lauya
  • Mutumin ko ma'aikata wanda ya tabbatar da jinginar, kamar yadda yake a cikin banki ko ma'aikata na kudi
  • Mutumin da yake yin takardar shaidar, kamar mai binciken.

 

 Halin 'yancin (RRR)ladam - kwafi (3)

Anan, a cikin kundin tsarin gargajiya kawai nau'ikan wa'adi ne. Amma an fadada samfurin yadda za'a iya daidaita yanayi daban-daban na alakar doka da nauyin mulki:

  • Jinginar gida ko damuwa
  • Shafuka, wanda zai iya kasancewa Ƙuntatawa, Halayen da Sharuɗɗa.
  • Ma'anar haɗin kai tare da tushen.

 

The Object of Law

ladam - kwafi (4)

Anan akwai matakai daban-daban na azuzuwan, amma komai yana farawa daga abin da ake kira ƙungiyar gudanarwa (BAUnit). Duba cewa wannan abu ne na abu, ko muna da taswira ko wata takarda.

Wannan shi ne, saboda a zahiri akwai wani abu, wanda a hankali za'a tsara shi amma BAUnit ya fara daga hakan kuma a farkon batun akwai yanayin "ba fannin-georeferenced":

  • Abinda ba na ainihi bane, wato, abin da za a iya cire daga mãkirci, irin su yanayin wayar hannu, eriya tarho, da dai sauransu.
  • Mai ganowa na asali na asali
  • Shafin da ba'a ba da kyauta ba
  • Adireshin jiki wanda yake gano gidan a cikin ginin, kuma wannan zai iya wuce matakin ƙauren a cikin ginin.

Sa'an nan kuma akwai BAUnits da ke da ƙwarewar sararin samaniya, daga cikinsu akwai:

  • Parungiyar da ba a tsara ta ba (ɓangare na kunshi), wanda zai iya zama aya, saitin maki da kan iyakoki.
  • Tsarin da aka tsara, wanda zai iya kasancewa ɗaya, ko kuma da dama dangane da dukiya ɗaya.

Ofaya daga cikin fa'idodi na karɓar samfurin LADM shine cewa babu wani ƙwarewar bayanai, babu kyakkyawa ko mara kyau cadastre, sai dai wakilcin gaskiya. Rukunan gudanarwa suna wanzuwa kuma zasu iya inganta daidaito daga:

  •  Gidauniyar masu biyan haraji na wani gari wanda aka yi rantsuwa kawai a cikin Excel.
  • Daga baya za su iya samun haɗin kai, tare da abin da ƙwararrun digiri ya kasance na farko amma aiki mai mahimmanci.
  • Sa'an nan kuma zaku iya yin mãkirci, amma ba tare da cikakkiyar bayani ba.

Komai ya rufe a cikin sararin ganewa na makircin, tare da matakai daban-daban na wakilci don sauƙin dalili "a zahiri zahirin abu ɗaya ne kawai". Hakanan yana da mahimmanci cewa ba wai kawai dokar sirri ta nuna ba, har ma da dokar jama'a kamar batun yanki mai kariya ko ƙungiyoyin sarari waɗanda aka ayyana a cikin dokoki daban-daban kamar yankin ambaliyar ruwa da ke haifar da tasiri ga makircin.

 

ladm - kwafiAbubuwan da ke cikin abu.

Wannan jerin azuzuwan musamman ne, waɗanda ke ba da izinin bayyana nau'ikan wakilcin yanayin ƙasa na abu ɗaya, shi ya sa suke da alaƙa da asalin.

Abu mai mahimmanci anan shine cewa mafi ƙarancin ma'aunin ma'auni shine ma'ana, wanda shine alhakin mai binciken. Daban-daban yanayi don 2D da 3D suna cikakkun bayanai.

Dangane da girma biyu, ma'ana, to iyaka a cikin haɗin arc-node sannan siffar a cikin lissafin da ke rufe. Hakanan akwai shi don 3D kodayake anan akwai ƙarin shari'ar guda ɗaya wanda shine abu 3D wanda ba fuskokin fuska ba.

Hanyoyin wakiltar zane-zane ya fito ne ta wurin tushen, la'akari da cewa akwai wata takarda da za ta kasance mafi mahimmanci da ba za a iya kusantar da shi a ɓangaren mahallin ba.

A ƙarshe, LADM misali ne wanda za'a sani. Samun kayan abu ne wanda aka gabatar a cikin Cadastre 2014 wanda muka riga muka isa; kodayake tare da nasarori da yawa a ɓangaren fasaha da ilimi tare da ƙalubale da yawa a cikin ɓangaren ma'aikata da ƙa'idodi.

8 Amsawa ga "Me yakamata masanin geomatist ya sani game da tsarin mulkin ƙasar LADM"

  1. ba ya ba ni bayanin lokacin da na motsa linzamin kwamfuta ta gumaka

  2. Sannu, za ka iya samun gurbin da ya bayyana a cikin hoton

  3. A zahiri, samfurin ya dace da ƙasar. Idan ƙasa ta yanke shawarar cewa wasu bayanai ba za suyi amfani da shi ba ... ba ta amfani da shi.
    Abu mai mahimmanci ita ce samfurin samfurin yana amfani da daidaitattun bayanan da ke amfani.

  4. Idan da wuya a Peru ya shiga gida don samun bayanai na bayanan, samun duk bayanan da aka nema a cikin LADM ya fi rikitarwa. Kuma har yanzu mafi wuya a dauki bayanai daga gonaki a Callao.

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