BIM - yanayin da ba zai yiwu ba na CAD

A cikin yanayinmu na Geo-Engineering, wannan ba labari bane Lokacin BIM (Tsarin Gine-ginen Bayanai), wanda ke bawa abubuwa masu rai na ainihi damar yin samfuri, ba kawai a cikin wakilcin su ba amma a cikin matakan zagayen rayuwa daban-daban. Yana nufin cewa hanya, gada, bawul, canal, gini, daga tsinkayenta na iya samun fayil wanda yake gano shi, wanda ya ƙunshi ƙirarta, tsarin aikinta, tasiri akan mahalli, aiki, amfani, rangwame, kulawa, gyare-gyare, ƙimar kuɗi akan lokaci har ma da rushe shi.

Ta yin amfani da kusancin masana ilimin kimiya da ke magana kan wannan batun, hanyar balaga ta BIM tana da alaƙa da ci gaban abubuwan da ake buƙata don ci gabanta, ƙwarewar ƙungiyoyi don kamawa da sarrafa bayanai (sabo da wanzu), aiwatarwa mizanin duniya, kayan aikin bayanai da kuma samfurin tsari daban-daban wadanda suke hade da gudanar da filaye. Kalubale ga BIM shine ya kai wani lokacin da ya hada da alakar dangantaka da PLM (Gudanar da Lifecycle Management), inda masana'antun masana'antu da aiyuka ke neman gudanar da irin wannan zagayen, kodayake tare da bangarorin da ba lallai bane su hada da yanayin yanayin kasa.

A batu na haduwa da wadannan biyu hanyoyi (BIM + PLM) ne manufar mai kaifin biranen (Smart Cities), inda mafi manyan kamfanoni suna tunzura tafi, saboda haka da gaggawa bukatar manyan birane kamar irreversibility zuwa ingancin ɗan adam wanda ba zai iya kasawa ba a kimiyya da fasahar amfani da yanke shawara.

Da ke ƙasa, zamu damu da wasu al'amurra da kuma ci gaba da suka shafi BIM da kuma dangantaka da kayan fasaha na amfani da jama'a.

Matakan BIM

Bew da Richards sunyi bayanin hanyar BIM a cikin matakai hudu, ciki har da Level Zero, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin hoto. Don bayyana, cewa wannan hanya ce ta hanyar daidaitawa, ba mai yawa na tallafawa duniya ba, wanda akwai abin da za a yi magana akan.

smart birane

Level BIM Level 0 (CAD).

Wannan ya dace da Tsarin Tallafi na Kwamfuta, wanda aka gani daga abubuwan da muka gani a shekarun 80. Don waɗancan lokutan, abubuwan fifiko shine ɗaukar zanen fasaha wanda tuni anyi shi a cikin tsare-tsaren tsari, zuwa tsarin lambobi. Muna tunatar da misalai haihuwar AutoCAD da Microstation a cikin waɗannan lokutan, waɗanda ba tare da ɓata wani babban mataki ba, ba komai sai Zane; fadada su suka fadi haka (Drawing DWG, Design DGN). Wataƙila kawai software da aka riga aka gani fiye da wannan shine ArchiCAD, wanda tun 1987 yayi magana akan Ginin Virtual, tare da ƙyamar kasancewar asalin Hungary a cikin shekarun yaƙin sanyi. Har ila yau a cikin wannan matakin ya hada da gudanar da bayanan ba-izini daga sauran aikace-aikacen da suka shafi gudanar da aikin, misali Kasafin kudi, Tsare-tsare, gudanar da shari'a, da sauransu.

Matsayin BIM Level 1 (2D, 3D).

Wannan yana faruwa a cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata, a cikin balagar filin aiki wanda tuni za'a iya kiran shi 2D. Ginin a cikin 3D sararin samaniya kuma ya fara, kodayake a cikin matakansa na farko, zamu iya tuna yadda wahalar yin hakan ta atomatik ta AutoCAD R13 da Microstation J. Akwai ganin abubuwa masu girma uku, amma har yanzu su vectors ne waɗanda suka kunshi baka, nodes, fuskoki da rukuni na waɗannan. Game da AutoDesk, ire-iren abubuwa kamar SoftDesk sun haɗa abubuwa kamar na saman AutoCAD 2014, wanda da su ake yin zane-zanen hanya da nazarin sararin samaniya, amma komai yana bayan akwatin baƙar fata wanda mafita kamar EaglePoint yayi fiye da «m«. Microstation ya riga ya haɗa da Triforma, Geopack da AutoPlant a ƙarƙashin irin wannan ma'anar, tare da haɗin sararin samaniya na haɗin haɗin keɓaɓɓu ba tare da daidaitaccen ra'ayi ba.

Wannan shekaru goma, duk da cewa akwai ko da model da kuma daidaita Abubuwan ganewa aka gane a gaskiya da ɗan tilasta hadewa da a tsaye da mafita ga AEC samu daga wasu kamfanoni, ciki har da Architecture, Construction, Geospatial Industry, Manufacturing da Animation.

AutoDesk baiyi magana game da BIM ba har sai da aka sayi Revit a 2002, amma haɗa haɗin kai kamar Civil3D yana ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo. Dangane da Bentley, shigar da shirin XFM (Extensible Feature Modelling) a cikin Microstation 2004 yana da mahimmanci kuma yayin miƙa mulki da aka sani da XM, dandamali na ɓangare na uku kamar Heastad, RAM, STAAD, Optram, Speedikon, ProSteel, PlantWise, RM- LEAP Bridge da HevaComp. A cikin 2008 Bentley ya ƙaddamar da Microstation V8i, inda XFM ya balaga da I-samfurin azaman daidaitaccen haɗin gwiwa.

Level BIM Level 2 (BIMs, 4D, 5 D)

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Abu mafi wahala a wannan matakin na BIM Level 2 shine daidaito; Musamman tunda kamfanoni masu zaman kansu suna ɗora bakunansu kuma suna son tilastawa wasu suyi amfani da son ransu. Dangane da software don filin geospatial, ya kasance software kyauta ce wacce ta sanya ƙarfin daidaitawa tare da matakin yarjejeniya wanda Open Geospatial Consortium OGC ke wakilta yanzu. Amma a cikin filin CAD-BIM, babu wani shiri na OpenSource, irin wannan har zuwa yau kawai kayan aikin kyauta tare da damar girma shine LibreCAD, wanda kawai ke Mataki na 1 -idan ba haka ba ne barin 0 Level. Kamfanoni masu zaman kansu sun saki nau'ikan kyauta, amma daidaitawa zuwa BIM ya yi jinkiri, a cikin muryar wasu saboda ikon mallaka na mallaka.

Gudummawar da Birtaniyya ke bayarwa tana da mahimmanci, cewa ɗabi'ar su ta yin kusan komai baya, sun jagoranci British Standard, irin su lambobin BS1192: 2007 da BS7000: 4; Waɗannan sun tsufa daga jiragen takarda zuwa Matsayin BIM 1. BS8541: 2 tuni ya bayyana a cikin samfurin dijital kuma a cikin wannan shekarun BS1192: 2 da BS1192: 3.

Shi ne m dalilin da ya sa ya yi da shekara-shekara taro Bentley Systems Lantarki da kuma lambobin yabo a London, da shekaru 2013, 2014, 2015 da 2016. kazalika da sayen kamfanoni da manyan kamfanoni na Birtaniya abokan ciniki -Har ma na kalubalanci tunani game da motsi na hedkwatar Turai daga Holland zuwa Ireland-

A karshe, ko da yaushe a cikin tsarin na OGC shi ya sanya ci gaban da dama da samun izini yarda matsayin nufin BIM, musamman da GML, da ciyar da misalai kamar InfraGML, CityGML da UrbanGML.

Kodayake yawancin kokarin da ake yi yanzu a cikin wannan shekarun na BIM Level 2 suna kokarin kaiwa ga tsarin tafiyar da rayuwar samfuran, har yanzu ba za a iya daukar su cikakke ko daidaitacce ba, da kuma bashin bashi tare da 4D da 5D wadanda suka hada da Shirye-shiryen Gina da Dynamic Estimation. Abubuwan da ke faruwa a tattare da tarbiya sanannu ne a cikin haɗakarwa / mallakar kamfanoni da kuma hangen nesa don daidaitawa.

Matsayin BIM Level 3 (Haɗawa, Gudanar da Hoto, 6D)

Matsayin haɗin kai wanda ake tsammani a matakin BIM Level 3, tun bayan 2020 ya haɗa da tsammanin tsammanin tsayayyar daidaito a cikin ka'idodin: Data Common (IFC). Dictionaries na yau da kullum (IDM) da kuma hanyoyin da aka saba (IFD).

smart birane

Ana sa ran daidaitaccen salon bidiyo ya jagoranci Intanet na Abubuwan (IOT), inda ba kawai yanayin ƙasa yake tsara ba, har ma da kayan aiki da kuma kayan aikin da suka zama sassan gine-gine, kayan da ake amfani da shi don sufuri (kayayyaki na kayan aiki), kayan gida, albarkatun kasa, duk a cikin rai wanda ya shafi ayyukan jama'a da na sirri na masu mallakar, Gliders, Designers da Investors.

Dangane da Bentley Systems, Ina tuna ganin daga gabatarwar 2013 a Landan, haɗakar da matakai biyu na Tsarin Ma'anar Aikin:

  • PIM (Model Information Model) Breef - Concept - Definition - Zane - Ginin / Hukumar - Bayarwa / Kashewa
  • AIM (Asalin Bayani na Asusun) Ayyuka - Amfani

Hangen nesa ne mai ban sha'awa, la'akari da cewa waɗannan fannoni suna daga shekaru goma masu zuwa, amma tunda sun ci gaba suna ba da izinin daidaito ya kasance. Duk da samun mafita da yawa a tsaye, tsarin sabis na CONNECT Edition yana haifar da yanayin Hub a cikin yanayi guda wanda Microstation shine kayan aikin samfurin, ProjectWise kayan aikin gudanar da aikin da AssetWise kayan aikin sarrafawa. , don haka rufe mahimman lokuta biyu, Opex da Capex na BS1192: 3.

Haka kuma ana sa ran cewa a wannan lokacin za'ayi la'akari da bayanai a matsayin kayan haɓaka, wanda ke buƙatar a rarraba tashoshi, daidaituwa don zama cikakkun amfani, kuma hakika abin yana samuwa a cikin ainihin yanayin yanayi tare da haɓakar masu karɓa.

Sarakuna masu mahimmanci shine ƙarfin BIM

smart biraneKalubale na BIM Level 3 shine cewa fannonin karatun basu sake haduwa ta hanyar tsarin fayil ba amma ta hanyar ayyuka daga BIM-Hubs. Wani darasi mai ban sha'awa na wannan zai zama Smart Cities, wanda tuni yayi amfani da maganganu irin su Copenhagen, Singapoore, Johannesburg yayi ƙoƙari mai ban sha'awa don haɗa gwamnatin-tarayya da g-government, idan muka yarda da kanmu waɗancan sharuɗɗan. Amma kuma kalubale ne mai ban sha'awa, cewa a cikin wannan yanayin na BIM Level 3, duk ayyukan ɗan adam ana yin su. Wannan yana nuna cewa fannoni kamar su kuɗi, ilimi, kiwon lafiya, da mahalli an haɗa su cikin zagaye mai alaƙa da gudanar da sararin samaniya. Tabbas, ba zamu ga ayyukan motsa jiki na waɗannan a cikin wannan shekaru goma ba, abin tambaya ne idan sun faru da gaske a cikin matsakaiciyar magana, idan muka yi la'akari da cewa burin shine don tabbatar da ingantaccen rayuwar mazaunan wannan duniyar -ko aƙalla daga waɗancan garuruwan- da kuma dawo da lalacewa ga lalacewar duniya -wanda ba ya dogara ne a kan birane kaɗan-.

Kodayake yawan biranen karkara ba kawai a kusa da kusurwa ba, yana san abin da ke faruwa tare da manyan kamfanonin da ke kula da fasaha.

HEXAGON, tare da mallakar kamfanoni kamar Leica na iya sarrafa kamun bayanai a cikin filin, tare da sayan Erdas + Intergraph zai iya sarrafa samfurin sararin samaniya, yanzu kwanan nan yana yin kusanci mai ma'ana tare da AutoDesk don sarrafa zane, ƙera abubuwa da rayarwa. Ba tare da ambaton duk kamfanonin da waccan masarautar ta ƙunsa ba, waɗanda duk ake nufin abu guda.

 

A gefe guda kuma, Bentley yana sarrafa zane, aiki da sake zagayowar yawancin masana'antar Gine-gine, Gine-gine, Injin Injiniya da Masana'antu. Koyaya, Bentley ba ze da sha'awar satar sarari daga wasu ba, kuma muna ganin yadda yake yin ƙawance da Trimble wanda ya sayi kusan dukkanin masu fafatawa da suka danganci kula da filin da samfurin, SIEMENS wanda ke da babban iko na masana'antun masana'antu da Microsoft wanda ke niyyar matsawa zuwa hanyoyin samar da bayanai -ba za a bari ba, saboda a cikin wannan yanayi na hangen nesa ya rasa tare da Office na Windows-

Duk inda muka ganshi, manyan kamfanoni suna yin fare akan BIM don maslaharsa ta kusa a masarufi guda uku waɗanda zasu matsar da aikin Smart Cities: Hanyoyin Haɓakawa, Kayayyakin Kayayyaki da Innovation ga sabbin buƙatun samfuran / aiyuka. Tabbas, akwai manyan dodanni da suka rage don daidaitawa da bulogi, kamar ESRI, IBM, Oracle, Amazon, Google, don ambata wasu kaɗan da muka sani suna da sha'awar shirye-shiryen Smart Cities nasu.

A bayyane yake cewa kasuwanci na gaba shine Smart Cities, a ƙarƙashin haɗin BIM + PLM inda ba za a sami Microsoft ɗin da zai karɓi kashi 95% na kasuwa ba. Wannan tsari ne mai matukar rikitarwa, ana kuma iya hango cewa kamfanonin da basa cin amana akan wannan kasuwancin za'a bar su suna yin CAD, Takaddun Excel da kuma tsarin CRM rufe. Kasuwancin da za'a haɗasu sune waɗanda basa cikin tsarin rayuwar gargajiya na Gine-gine, Injiniya, Gine-gine da Ayyuka (AECO); wadanda ke kula da sauran ayyukan dan adam a karkashin tsarin tattalin arziki da tattalin arziki, kamar masana'antu, gwamnatin lantarki, aiyukan zamantakewar al'umma, samar da kayan gona da sama da duk kula da makamashi da albarkatun kasa.

GIS zai kasance cikin BIM a ƙarƙashin hangen nesa na Smart Cities. A halin yanzu kusan an cakuda su wajen daukar bayanai da zane, amma da alama har yanzu suna da ra'ayoyi mabanbanta; Misali, tsarin samar da ababen hawa ba alhakin GIS bane, amma ya kware sosai a cikin bincike da tallan kayan sararin samaniya, wajen hasashen yanayi, wajen gudanar da albarkatun kasa da kuma dukkanin kimiyyar duniya. Idan muka yi la'akari da girma na shida (6D) cewa a zamanin birane masu wayo, ƙididdigewa, amfani, sake amfani da samar da makamashi zai zama mai mahimmanci, to zai zama abubuwan da ake buƙata waɗanda GIS ke yi yanzu tare da manyan keɓaɓɓu. Amma yayin nazarin karfin samar da ruwa na kwandon ruwa, don sanin yawan amfanin da ya wajaba na mita mai siffar sukari mai kankare, akwai gagarumin gibi; wanda za a cika har zuwa lokacin da aka haɗa aikin a matsayin madaidaicin zagaye na waɗannan fannoni biyu.

A Ƙarshe.

ka egeomatesAkwai sauran abubuwa da yawa game da su, kuma ina fatan in ci gaba da kawo wannan. A yanzu, an bar ƙwararrun masana Geo-Engineering tare da ƙalubalen daidaita kanmu tare da ba za a iya sauyawa ba da kuma koyo daga matakin fasaha, saboda har yanzu ana tambaya ko Roadmap don aiwatar da BIM za a iya yin shi ba tare da dogaro da Workingungiyar Aiki da ke jagorantar ba. Fiye da duka, saboda dole ne a ga BIM ta fuskoki biyu: Na ɗaya shine na abubuwan da dole ne a yi su a fasaha, ilimi, matakin aiki, da nufin ɗorewa, sannan daga mahangar gwamnatoci, waɗanda ke da tsammanin a cikin gajeren zango. , mantawa da cewa ikon sarrafa su galibi suna da saurin gaske. Bugu da ƙari, ga waɗanda suke cikin biranen da za su iya yin tunani game da Smart Cities, yana da gaggawa cewa a mai da hankali ga 'yan ƙasa, maimakon fasaha.

🙂 Idan wannan yanayin ya cika, burin daya daga cikin masu jagoranci na, wanda ke fatan shuka hekta 3,000 na gandun daji na mahogany, tare da ingantaccen tsarin rayuwa hade da ci gaban sa, zai zama gaskiya; don haka zan iya zuwa banki a shekara guda in yi jingina da farkon kuɗin don biyan kuɗin a hankali. A cikin shekaru 20, zaku sami miliyon cubic miliyan na kadara wanda zaku iya warwarewa ba kawai ritayar ku ba, har ma da bashin ƙasarku na ƙasashen waje.

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