BIM - da komowar Trend na CAD

A cikin yanayinmu na Geo-Engineering, wannan ba labari bane Lokacin BIM (Gina Halin Gida), wanda ya ba da izinin abubuwa daban-daban da za a tsara su, ba kawai a cikin wakilinsu ba amma a cikin matakai daban-daban na rayuwa. Yana nufin, cewa babbar hanya, wani gada, wani bawul, tashar, ginin, daga ganewa zai iya samun fayil wanda ya gano shi, wanda ya ƙunshi zane, tsarin aikinsa, shafi ga yanayin yanayi, aiki, amfani, kaya, goyon baya, gyare-gyare, darajar kuɗi a lokaci har ma da rushewa.

Amfani da m na theorists wanda ake geofumando wannan batu, da hanya na maturation BIM ake dangantawa da ci gaba na bayanai da ake bukata wajen samar da damar kayan aiki zuwa kama da bayanai management (sabon da kuma data kasance), aiwatar da matsayin duniya, abubuwan da ke bayanan bayanai da kuma samfurin tsari na daban-daban na juyin halitta da suka hada da gudanar da yankin. BIM ne wani kalubale, su kai wani lokacin a lokacin da ka hada da wani muhimmi dangantaka da PLM (Product Lifecycle Management), inda masana'antu da kuma ayyuka da masana'antu ya nemi a gudanar da irin wannan ko da yake ba dole ba ne ikon yinsa sake zagayowar hada geospatial bayyanar.

A batu na haduwa da wadannan biyu hanyoyi (BIM + PLM) ne manufar mai kaifin biranen (Smart Cities), inda mafi manyan kamfanoni suna tunzura tafi, saboda haka da gaggawa bukatar manyan birane kamar irreversibility zuwa ingancin ɗan adam wanda ba zai iya kasawa ba a kimiyya da fasahar amfani da yanke shawara.

Da ke ƙasa, zamu damu da wasu al'amurra da kuma ci gaba da suka shafi BIM da kuma dangantaka da kayan fasaha na amfani da jama'a.

Matakan BIM

Bew da Richards sunyi bayanin hanyar BIM a cikin matakai hudu, ciki har da Level Zero, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin hoto. Don bayyana, cewa wannan hanya ce ta hanyar daidaitawa, ba mai yawa na tallafawa duniya ba, wanda akwai abin da za a yi magana akan.

smart birane

Level BIM Level 0 (CAD).

Wannan ya dace da Kwamfuta ta Nasara, wanda aka gani daga hangen nesa wanda muka gani a cikin shekarun 80. A wa annan lokuta, abubuwan da aka fi mayar da hankali shine ɗaukar zane-zanen fasaha wanda aka riga ya aikata a cikin zane-zane, don ƙaddamar da yadudduka. Muna tunawa a matsayin misalai na haihuwa na AutoCAD da Microstation a waɗannan lokuta, cewa ba tare da bata dashi daga mataki mai girma ba, basu yi fiye da zane ba; kariyarta ta ce (Dwing, DGN Dessin). Zai yiwu software wanda na riga na gani a baya shine ArchiCAD, wanda daga 1987 ya yi magana game da Ginin Ginin, tare da wulakanta kasancewar asalin Hungary a cikin shekarun sanyi. Har ila yau, an haɗa a cikin wannan mataki shine gudanar da bayanan da ba'a samu ba daga wasu aikace-aikace da suka shafi aikin gudanarwa, kamar Budgets, Planning, management law, etc.

Matsayin BIM Level 1 (2D, 3D).

Wannan yana faruwa a cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata, a cikin balaga na ɗakin aikin da za'a iya kiransu 2D. fara yi ma ya ba da sarari 3D, ko da yake a farkon matakai, za mu iya tuna da abin da shi ya tedious su yi shi tare da AutoCAD da Microstation J. R13 wani nuni na uku girma aiki, amma ya kasance vectors hada da arcs, nodes, da kuma fuskokin rukuni na waɗannan. A cikin hali na AutoDesk, SoftDesk versions kamar yadda hadedde Concepts kamar saman daga AutoCAD 2014 da wanda hanya kayayyaki da kuma sarari bincike da aka sanya, amma shi ya kasance baya da wani baki akwatin mafita kamar EaglePoint sanya mafi 'm«. Microstation riga hada Triforma, Geopack da AutoPlant karkashin wani irin dabaru, da na sarari links-links irin engeneering babu yarjejeniya standardization.

Wannan shekaru goma, duk da cewa akwai ko da model da kuma daidaita Abubuwan ganewa aka gane a gaskiya da ɗan tilasta hadewa da a tsaye da mafita ga AEC samu daga wasu kamfanoni, ciki har da Architecture, Construction, Geospatial Industry, Manufacturing da Animation.

AutoDesk ba ya magana da BIM sayan Revit a 2002, amma hadewa da mafita kamar yadda Civil3D zai dauki tsawon yawa. Domin Bentley ne muhimmi shigar XFM tsari (Kalmomin Feature tallan kayan kawa) a Microstation 2004 da kuma lokacin miƙa mulki da aka sani da XM aka samu kamar yadda Heastad ɓangare na uku dandamali, RAM, Staad, Optram, Speedikon, ProSteel, PlantWise, RM- LEAP Bridge da HevaComp. A 2008 Bentley Microstation gabatar da V8i, inda balagagge XFM to ina-hadin baki model kamar misali.

Level BIM Level 2 (BIMs, 4D, 5 D)

bim

Abu mafi wuya a cikin wannan mataki na BIM Level 2 ya kasance daidaituwa; Musamman saboda kamfanoni masu zaman kansu suna kan buns kuma suna so su tilasta wa wasu su yi amfani da son zuciyarsu. A game da software don filin na geospatial, yana da software kyauta wanda ya sanya karfi don daidaitawa tare da digiri na yarjejeniya cewa yanzu wakiltar Open Geospatial Consortium OGC. Amma a cikin filin CAD-BIM, babu wani shiri na OpenSource, wanda ya sa har yanzu yau da software na kyauta wanda zai iya girma shi ne LibreCAD, wanda yake kawai a 1 Level -idan ba haka ba ne barin 0 Level. Kamfanoni masu zaman kansu sun saki sassan kyauta, amma daidaituwa ga BIM ya jinkirta, a cikin muryar wasu saboda ikon mulkin mallaka.

Yana da muhimmanci ga gudunmawar Birtaniya, cewa al'amuransu na yin kusan dukkanin abin da ke cikin ƙasa, sun jagoranci British Standard, kamar yadda dokokin BS1192: 2007 da BS7000: 4; Wadannan sune tsofaffi daga jiragen takarda zuwa BIM Level 1. BS8541: 2 ya riga ya riga ya kasance a cikin tsarin dijital kuma a wannan shekarun BS1192: 2 da BS1192: 3.

Yana da mahimmanci dalilin da ya sa BentleySystems ya yi taron shekara-shekara na Harkokin Harkokin Harkokin Gida da kuma lambar yabo a London, 2013, 2014, 2015 da 2016 shekaru; kazalika da sayen kamfanonin da manyan kamfanoni na Birtaniya abokan ciniki -Har ma na kalubalanci tunani game da motsi na hedkwatar Turai daga Holland zuwa Ireland-.

A karshe, ko da yaushe a cikin tsarin na OGC shi ya sanya ci gaban da dama da samun izini yarda matsayin nufin BIM, musamman da GML, da ciyar da misalai kamar InfraGML, CityGML da UrbanGML.

Duk da yake mutane da yawa yanzu kokari a wannan shekaru goma da BIM Level 2 ƙoƙari isa management lifecycle model har yanzu ba za a dauke da cikakken ko daidaita da fice basusuka da 4D da 5D ciki har da shiryawa Ginin da Dynamic Estimation. Trends a haduwa biyu tarbiyya ne sananne ci / saye da kamfanoni da cikakke hangen nesa standardization.

Matsayin BIM Level 3 (Haɗawa, Gudanar da Hoto, 6D)

Matsayin haɗin kai wanda ake tsammani a matakin BIM Level 3, tun bayan 2020 ya haɗa da tsammanin tsammanin tsayayyar daidaito a cikin ka'idodin: Data Common (IFC). Dictionaries na yau da kullum (IDM) da kuma hanyoyin da aka saba (IFD).

smart birane

Ana sa ran daidaitaccen salon bidiyo ya jagoranci Intanet na Abubuwan (IOT), inda ba kawai yanayin ƙasa yake tsara ba, har ma da kayan aiki da kuma kayan aikin da suka zama sassan gine-gine, kayan da ake amfani da shi don sufuri (kayayyaki na kayan aiki), kayan gida, albarkatun kasa, duk a cikin rai wanda ya shafi ayyukan jama'a da na sirri na masu mallakar, Gliders, Designers da Investors.

A game da Bentley Systems, ina tunawa da gani daga gabatarwa na 2013 a London, da haɗin tafiyar matakai biyu na Tsarin Ma'anar Tsarin:

  • PIM (Model Information Model) Breef - Concept - Definition - Zane - Ginin / Hukumar - Bayarwa / Kashewa
  • AIM (Asalin Bayani na Asusun) Ayyuka - Amfani

Yana da wani ban sha'awa gani, la'akari da cewa wadannan fannoni ne na gaba shekaru goma, amma cewa ana ci gaba da damar standardization materialize. Duk da ciwon da yawa a tsaye mafita, da shiriya da sabis gama Edition halitta yanayi Hub cikin guda yanayi domin abin da Microstation ne tallan kayan kawa kayan aiki, ProjectWise da herrameinta aikin gudanar da AssetWise Management Tool Operation , wanda ya rufe muhimman lokuta biyu, Opex da Capex na BS1192: 3.

Haka kuma ana sa ran cewa a wannan lokacin za'ayi la'akari da bayanai a matsayin kayan haɓaka, wanda ke buƙatar a rarraba tashoshi, daidaituwa don zama cikakkun amfani, kuma hakika abin yana samuwa a cikin ainihin yanayin yanayi tare da haɓakar masu karɓa.

Sarakuna masu mahimmanci shine ƙarfin BIM

smart biraneKalubale na BIM Level 3 shi ne cewa tarurruka ba su da hanyar canzawa ta hanyar fayilolin fayiloli amma ta hanyar ayyuka daga BIM-Hubs. An ban sha'awa motsa jiki da za a yi da Smart Cities, na da riga amfani da lokuta a matsayin Compenhague, Singapoore, Johannesburg sa ban sha'awa yunkurin hade da e-gwamnati tare da g-gwamnati, idan muka kyale wadanda sharuddan. Amma kuma abin kalubale ne mai ban sha'awa, cewa a wannan yanayin na BIM Level 3, dukkanin aikin ɗan adam ne aka tsara. Wannan yana nuna cewa al'amurran da suka shafi kudi, ilimi, kiwon lafiya, da muhalli sun haɗu a cikin wani juzu'in da aka danganta da kulawa na sararin samaniya. Hakika, za mu ba su gani ba wadannan aikin bada a wannan karnin, shi ne m ko ma zo da gaske a cikin matsakaici lokaci, la'akari da cewa burin jama'ar ne don tabbatar da ci gaba a cikin ingancin rayuwa daga cikin mazaunan wannan duniyar tamu -ko a kalla wa] annan biranen- da kuma dawo da lalacewa ga yanayin yanayin duniya -wanda ba ya dogara ne a kan birane kaɗan-.

Kodayake yawan biranen karkara ba kawai a kusa da kusurwa ba, yana san abin da ke faruwa tare da manyan kamfanonin da ke kula da fasaha.

Heksagon, tare da saye kamfanoni, irin su Leica iya sarrafa data kama a filin, tare da saye Intergraph ERDAS + iya sarrafa sarari tallan kayan kawa, yanzu yin wani m m kwanan nan tare da AutoDesk don sarrafa zane, yi da kuma tashin hankali. Ba a ambaci dukkanin kamfanonin da suka hada da wannan tashar ba, wanda ke nufi zuwa wannan abu.

A wani ɓangaren kuma, Bentley yana sarrafa zane, aiki da sake zagayowar na Gine-ginen, Gine-gine, Ƙungiyoyin Gine-gine da Masana'antu. Duk da haka, Bentley ba ze yi sha'awar a sata sarari ga wasu, da kuma ganin yadda ya ƙawance da Trimble sayi kusan duk gasa alaka da gudanar da tallan kayan kawa filin, Siemens yana da babban iko da masana'antu da kuma Microsoft wannan yana nufin komawa ga abubuwan da ke cikin bayanai -ba za a bari ba, saboda a cikin wannan yanayi na hangen nesa ya rasa tare da Office na Windows-

Inda muka gani, manyan kamfanoni suna yin fare da BIM domin su sananne yuwuwar a cikin uku gatura cewa matsar da aiki na Smart Cities: Media Production, Supply Lantarki da kuma kirkire-kirkire don sabon bukatar for kayayyakin / ayyuka. Hakika, suna giant dodanni tsara a layi tubalan kamar ESRI, IBM, Oracle, Amazon, Google, to suna da wasu daga waɗanda suka sani, suna sha'awar naka Smart Cities manufofi.

A bayyane yake cewa kasuwancin na gaba shi ne gari mai kyau, a karkashin haɗin BIM + PLM inda ba za a sami Microsoft wanda ke karɓar 95% na kasuwar ba. Wannan ƙari ne mai ƙari, an kuma gane cewa kamfanonin da ba su shiga wannan kasuwancin ba za su fita daga CAD, Siffofin Excel da kuma rufe tsarin CRM. Harkokin kasuwancin da za a hade su ne wadanda ba su cikin tsarin rayuwar al'ada na Gine-ginen, Gine-gine, Gine-gine da Ayyuka (AECO); wadanda ke kula da sauran ayyuka na dan Adam a karkashin tsarin kula da zamantakewa na zamantakewar al'umma, kamar masana'antu, gwamnatin lantarki, ayyukan zamantakewa, aikin noma da kuma sama da dukkanin kula da makamashi da albarkatu.

GIS za a kunshe cikin BIM a karkashin hangen nesa na gari mai kyau. A halin yanzu an kusan samun su a cikin kamawa da samfurin samfurin bayanai, amma ana ganin suna da ra'ayi daban-daban; misali tallan kayan kawa kayayyakin more rayuwa ba ga GIS, amma an sosai qware a cikin bincike da kuma yin tallan kayan kawa na sarari abubuwa, a doguwar hanyar al'amura a halitta hanya management da kuma fadin duniya kimiyyar. Idan akai la'akari da shida girma (6D) cewa a sau da kaifin baki birane, quantify, amfani, sake amfani da kuma samar da makamashi za su kasance da muhimmanci sosai, sa'an nan za ka bukatar damar cewa yanzu sa da yawa GIS sana'a. Amma don nazarin da damar don samar da ruwa daga daya tasa sani nawa yi da ake bukata domin a cubic mita na kankare akwai wani gagarumin rata. wanda za a cika da cewa har yanzu ana haɗa aiki tare a zagaye na biyu na jinsin.

A Ƙarshe.

ka egeomatesAkwai karin bayani game da, kuma ina fatan ci gaba da taɓawa a kan wannan batu. Domin a yanzu, kwararru Geo-Engineering da muke da kalubale na aligning kanmu ga babu ja da koyi daga fasaha matakin, saboda shi ne har yanzu m ko jadawalin da su aiwatar da BIM za a iya yi ba tare da dogaro Working Group ne manyan. Musamman saboda BIM yana zuwa da za a kyan gani, daga biyu ra'ayoyi: Daya daga abubuwan da ya yi a cikin fasaha, ilimi, aiki matakin, tare da wani ra'ayi zuwa dorewa sa'an nan ta fuskar gwamnatoci, wanda ya yi tsammanin ma short kewayon , suna manta cewa yawancin halayen su suna da sauƙi sosai. Bugu da kari, ga waɗanda a cikin biranen da za a iya riga tunanin Smart Cities, shi ne na gaggawa zuwa da mayar da hankali a kan mutane maimakon a kan fasaha.

'???? Idan wannan labarin ya cika, mafarkin da ɗayan na za su ci gaba, wanda yana da fatan shuka shuke-shuke 3,000 na mahogany, tare da hanyar haɗuwa da ke da dangantaka da girma, zai zama gaskiya; don haka zai iya zuwa banki kuma ya ba da jinginar kuɗin farko don sassauki sauran kuɗin. A cikin shekaru 20 za ku sami mita miliyan ɗaya na kadari da za ku iya warwarewa ba kawai ku ja da baya ba, har ma da bashin waje na ƙasar ku.

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