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ArcGIS-ESRIAutoCAD-AutoDeskcadastreGeospatial - GISda yawa GISMicrostation-Bentley

CAD, GIS, ko duka?

... sayar da damar me ke faruwa? software na kyauta yana da wuya fiye da tabbatar da wani jami'in yin laifi (fashin teku) don me yasa ba software mai tsada.

lambar karewa Kwanan nan Bentley ya ƙaddamar da kamfen don inganta Taswirar Bentley, ta yin amfani da matsayin hujja cewa ba lallai ba ne a yi tunani dabam idan duk kayan aiki guda ɗaya za a iya magance su. A kan wannan, tsokaci da yawa cewa muna kusa don rage rata kuma dakatar da amfani da kalmomin CAD / GIS daban.

Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban, wasu ta hanyar tattalin arziki, wasu ta hanyar sana'a, wasu ta hanyar tawali'u, amma a aikace tare da ci gaba da fasaha, muna ci gaba da gwagwarmaya da wannan matsala.

1. Halin da ake amfani da shi.  Yana faruwa ne don aiwatar da aikin digiri (don amfani da misali), aikin layin da aka shimfida, yanke, juyawa, jan, hotuna aka loda, da dai sauransu. suna ci gaba da aiwatarwa a cikin AutoCAD ko Microstation. Idan muka tambayi masu fasaha me yasa suka fi so, zasu ce:

ArcGIS ba shi da amfani ga wannan

GVSIG na da kayan aikin amma yana gudu sosai (a kan Windows)

Rajista ba a sani ba kuma ba shi da isassun kayayyakin aiki

Daidaita layi yana da sauki fiye da gyaran polygon

Taimako ga IntelliCAD ba daidai yake ba

Sa'an nan dole ne mu yi dukkan aikin spaghetti, a cikin matakan daban, launuka, kauri, sa'annan a wuce zuwa ArcGIS kuma a can ake gina polygons. Idan mukayi haka zamu samu kurakuran topological (Wannan ba ya san CAD), muna yin gyare-gyare kuma muna komawa don yin canje-canje a cikin vector, tare da sake zagayowar wanda cikin manyan ayyuka ya ƙare wata rana. Amma a cikin aikin yau da kullun na sabuntawa na dindindin, canza CAD da GIS shine gwangwani wanda ƙarshe ya juya zuwa bayanai marasa daidaituwa.

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Sa'an nan kuma, idan muna so muyi wani abu gaba, za mu sanya shi a cikin bayanan sirri (Na nace, ta hanyar misali), haɗin CAD, wanda muke gani a cikin wurare goma amma an sami daidaitattun wurare fiye da 10, yanzu suna da uku ne kawai, wanda ke tilasta vector ya daina zama daidai, muddin ba zai shafi saurin ba aiwatar a cikin rumbun adana bayanai. Anan sabuntawa ba tare da ka'idojin topological ba yafi rikitarwa.

Kuma ga tattalin arziki, wani karamin gari Dole ne zuba jari a software don gina takaddama na ainihi da kuma wani don yi taswira mai kyau. Idan karamar hukuma tana da ƙarfi ko (ya gaskata cewa) ba ya buƙatar shirin aikin injiniya don amfani da akalla ɗaya na AutoCAD Lite da ArcGIS guda biyu da kari guda biyu; duk da haka cheap shi ne, sun kasance fiye da $ 4,000 (ba tare da horo ba). Waɗanda suka yi aiki tare da ƙananan hukumomi za su san irin kuɗin da aka kashe don siyar da wannan kuɗin ga mai binciken kuɗin da ke ba da umarni fiye da magajin gari.

Na sani, akwai yankunan da ba su da wadannan matsaloli, amma yawanci na asali na Hispanic ... yana rayuwa ne a gaskiya don dalilai na son yin GIS da CAD ba tare da shan taba ba.

2. GIS yakamata ya sami damar CAD

Na fahimci cewa a lokacin da akwai ArcView 3x ba zai yiwu ba ga aiwatar da kayan aikin vector yi management topologies, amma a wannan lokaci ba na gane dalilin da yasa muke da kayan aikin a GIS kawai yi abin da CAD (30 abubuwa)

  • Maballin 12 don ƙirƙirar (Lines, arcs, circles, polylines, maki ...)
  • Maballin 12 don gyara (daidaici, kwafi, motsa, juyawa, ƙarawa ...)
  • Kyakkyawan kulawa da kwarewa (hakuri na nacewa da CAD)

Tabbas sun riga sun sami waɗannan abubuwa, amma muna gunaguni game da aikin. Yakamata suyi kama da yadda ake yin shirye-shiryen yadawa, tare da sauƙin sarrafa kwatance, nisa, daidaitawa, faɗaɗawa, jawowa, yankan hoto ... babu wani abu mai mahimmanci, kamar yadda AutoCAD ko Microstation sukeyi. Dangane da wannan, mafi kyawun abin da muka gani shine ƙoƙarin gvSIG, wanda maimakon sake inganta hanyar yin vectors, ya dace da hanyar yi tare da AutoCAD, tare da miliyoyin masu amfani a duniya suna yin haka (Sanin cewa AutoCAD yana da hanyoyin da ba ta dace ba). Akwai aiki don girma cikin saurin aiki yayin ɗora hotuna masu nauyi ko manyan fayiloli; Na tabbata yana aiki mafi kyau akan Linux, amma ba akan Windows ba, kuma a babban kalubale don tabbatar da duniyar cewa bude ba shine kafirta ba.

3. Akwai CAD wanda ya riga yayi GIS

Game da Taswirar Bentley da AutoCAD Map, matsayin ya kasance don ƙirƙirar damar GIS don kayan aikin da aka yi amfani da su don aikin injiniya. Ci gaba ya kasance mai mahimmanci, babu wata shakka game da shi, amma har zuwa yau yawancin nune-nunen da ayyukan bugawa (taswirar da aka zana) suna da rauni ga abin da GIS ke yi da kyau (ko mafi kyau). Na kuma yi imanin cewa amfanin aiwatarwa don ayyuka masu sauƙi ya kasance ... gashi; idan ba haka ba, bari mu ga yawan masu amfani da AutoCAD (miliyoyin) da kuma nawa (waɗanda zasu so) Taswirar AutoCAD (ko Civil 3D); ba don dalilai na farashi ba, tunda kwatankwacin zai iya zama iri ɗaya idan muka aikata shi tare da masu amfani waɗanda suke amfani da lasisi. Yayi kusan iri ɗaya tare da Taswirar Microstation da Bentley, ba tare da shiga cikin ɗab'I da hulɗar hulɗa ba (don Allah).

4. CAD da GIS batutuwa ne daban daban. 

Akwai matsayi (tabbatacce) wanda ya ce duka batutuwan su ne yankuna na musamman guda biyu kuma cewa ba za su iya iya yin duka tare da kayan aikin ba; wani ɓangare na wannan hali ya gaji tunaninmu na 'yan shekaru da suka wuce:

... CAD shine don samar da kyamarori masu kyau da GIS don kyakkyawan taswira.

Amma wannan ƙwarewa, kamar yadda ka'idodin sun tsufa kuma an ƙaddamar da su ta hanyar software marasa kyauta, sun ɓace rushewa, manufofi irin su OGC a gefen GIS, aiwatar da manufar topology, Amfani da XML dannawa cikin BIM ra'ayi a gefen CAD, da sauransu, sun sanya CAD ba gani a matsayin zane hukumar amma ɓangare na aikin da real fannoni (Architecture, Civil Engineering, surveying, da dai sauransu).

Halin ya ce ƙwarewar ba za ta kasance cikin software ba (CAD / GIS) amma a cikin yankin aikace-aikacen. Don ba da misali, tsara hanyoyi ya zama ƙwarewar software da ke yin hakan, tare da daidaiton CAD da ƙwarewa don yi masa hidima ga shirye-shiryen da za su yi amfani da ginshiƙi don yin zane-zane a ƙarƙashin yanayin GIS. Hakanan, siffar siffar ya kamata ya sauka a cikin tarihi kuma bayanan GIS ya zama wakilci na zahiri ko na tebur wanda za a iya yin gyare-gyaren lissafinsa daga ɓangaren GIS, yana tambayar halayensa, da sanin alaƙar sa da wasu bayanan; yayin daga GIS gefen wakilcinsa masu ban mamaki, haɗi zuwa bayanai da iya yin gyara tare da daidaito da CAD zai yi.

Amma don haka ... mun kasance masu gaskiya a nesa, ba domin babu wani riga an kafa, ƙananan kayan aiki sun riga sunyi yawa, amma dole ne ka motsa manyan na'urori na software don aiwatar da shi a hanya mai amfani.

4. Kamar yadda na ganta

Ina tsammanin na ɗan lokaci, za mu ci gaba da amfani da shirye-shirye guda biyu don wakiltar abu guda: gyara ƙirarta a cikin CAD, bincika shi a cikin GIS, da gyaggyara shi a duka biyun. A ganina, abubuwa da yawa da muke yi mun ɗora hayaki sosai wanda ya rasa sauƙin amfani da shi don dalilai masu amfani da tallan fasaha (matsala) ya sa mun manta da dalilin ƙirar ɗan adam (don magance matsaloli).

image42 Allon zane yana da ɗaukakarsa, saboda babu wanda ya ƙirƙira wata hanyar yin zane da hannu, an saka magogi na lantarki a cikin jeren, amma tsarin aikinsu ba a cikin kayan da ke tebur ba amma a cikin abin da muka yi a can. Cartografia yana yin taswirori ƙarƙashin ƙididdigar sikelin da dacewa, munyi tunanin buga shi amma ba mu taɓa shakkar amfani da shi don amfanin ɗan adam ba.

Kada mu rasa hankali, saboda yanzu yakamata fasaha ta sauƙaƙa mana abubuwa da haɓaka AMFANINTA. Don haka, ya kamata lokacin da saka hannun jari ya daina kasancewa game da tsari, sarrafawa, pixels, lakabi da alamomi, don saka lokaci a cikin dalilin da ya sa aka ƙirƙire su: AMFANINSU. A sakamakon haka, kamar yadda ya gabata, mun dukufa wajen samar da kasuwanci, arziki da fa'idodi ga mutane.

Amma ra'ayin ba shi da kyau, kuma a ganina, na tsawon shekaru 5 masu zuwa, don yawancin ayyukan matakin da aka faro a farkon, za mu ci gaba da yin abubuwa iri ɗaya (duba, kada mu gama yin sa a cikin Google Earth). Kuma masu samar da software na CAD / GIS:

  • A gefen ESRI, watakila bari mu ga cigaban a cikin iyawar CAD, da fatan ba za a sake koyon yin amfani da maimaita launi ba.
  • A gefen AutoDesk, yada jama'a 3D don sanya Taswira ya zama wani ɓangare na aikin injiniya. Ra'ayin da yake daidai a wurina.
  • A kan Bentley, inganta PowerMap don CAD mai ƙananan farashi don samun damar GIS, kuma watakila don sauƙaƙe aiwatar da smoothing.
  • A ɓangaren ƙananan manhaja masu rahusa: Manifold, Tatuk GIS, Global Mapper, IntelliCAD, samun ƙasa ta hanyar yin abin da sunan software bai yi ba.

Idan software na Open Source (ci) ya ƙetare wannan shamaki, hakika zamu kalli baya a can, ba kawai ta yanayin tattalin arziki (wanda muka riga muka gani), amma ta hanyar magance matsaloli na kowa (abin da yake riga ya yi) da kuma cin zarafin duniya fiye da fashin teku.

Rashin tsammani, watakila; rudu, tabbas. Kuma ku: Yaya kuke gani?

Golgi Alvarez

Marubuci, mai bincike, kwararre a cikin Samfuran Gudanar da Ƙasa. Ya halarci Conceptualization da aiwatar da model kamar: National System of Property Administration SINAP a Honduras, Model na Management of hadin gwiwa Municipalities a Honduras, Integrated Model na Cadastre Management - Registry a Nicaragua, System of Administration na Territory SAT a Colombia. . Editan shafin ilimin Geofumadas tun daga 2007 kuma mahaliccin Kwalejin AulaGEO wanda ya haɗa da darussa sama da 100 akan GIS - CAD - BIM - batutuwan Twins na Dijital.

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6 Comments

  1. Hiar Cesar

    Abin da ya faru shi ne cewa daidaitawar binciken ku, kasancewar UTM, daidai yake da waɗanda za su iya kasancewa a cikin yankuna 60 masu yuwuwar UTM a cikin duniya, don haka dole ne ku ayyana wanda kuke ciki. Har ila yau, Datum shine ma'anar ellipsoid, don ba ku ra'ayi, kamar dai WGS84 sun kasance a matakin teku kuma wani Datum kamar NAD 24 ya wuce mita 3,000 a sama, dukiyar na iya zama iri ɗaya kuma a wani lokaci latitude da tsayin su ne. iri daya ne, amma tazarar da aka yi hasashe akan wadannan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan iri guda biyu ba iri daya bane. Shi ya sa ake kiran tsarin UTM da sunan “projected”.

    Don yin shi a cikin ArcGIS, danna-dama akan Layer ɗin da kuke sha'awar georeferencing kuma zaɓi zaɓi "Properties", sannan a cikin rukunin da ya bayyana, zaɓi shafin "source".
    A can akwai maballin da za a zabi “source”, sai ka shiga, sannan ka je ka nemo tsarin da ake kira projected system (UTM), sai ka zabi yankin da ya dace, idan kuma kana yankin arewa ne ko kuma kudancin kasar.

    Tare da wannan fayil ɗinku an ba da izinin zuwa ga datti da kuma yanki.

    A gaisuwa.

  2. mai kyau safe, ina taya murna l m blog cewa iyawa na Lucenzo shakka na zama DXF fayil shp ta CAD fayil ne georeferenced kuma lalle ne, haƙĩƙa, a cikin GIS, wanda ba zato ba tsammani arcgis amfani 9.3 ni da tsarawa bayyana amma kamar yadda san ko su wanene na san cewa zan sa da bayanai datum da shi ne, amma ba yadda na gustari san wannan yaque've duba ko'ina a kan yanar gizo amma ba zai iya samun real amsar zai ƙwarai godiya ka iya amsa tambaya don Allah ne cordenadas utm tare da gsw84

  3. "" Jose Maria ya ce: Maris 16, 2010 - 8:36 pm
    yadda za a wuce zane a CAD zuwa arc gis ko don duba arc""

    resp: daga taswirar autocad ka fitar da samfurori na layi, polygons (samar da topologies) da maki.

    to warware matsalolin topological kurakurai a CAD akwai da yawa erramients kamar AutoCAD jawo taswirar clenup taimako cire kuskure da CAD fayiloli kafin fitarwa ko amfani, kamar yadda related to objectsdata siffofi ko yadudduka. kuma a ArcGIS da kuma sauran software GIS kamar yadda OpenJUMP zama topological validators a yanayin da na yi amfani da biyu da ciwon encuenta a arcgis ne muhimmanci ƙuduri xy (juriya) da kuma q cewa ya dogara a kan ingancin da Layer, tare da OpenJUMP iya duba polygons tare da ramukan ko vertices wani m ake bukata nesa ƙananan kusassari.
    gaisuwa

  4. Daga ArcGIS zaka kaddamar da shi a matsayin Layer, to sai ka sanya shi cikin Featureclass

  5. yadda za a zana zane a fadi zuwa bidiyo ko zuwa ra'ayi

  6. hola

    Na ga cewa kuna magana daga gwanintar "CADISTA".
    Abubuwa na farko da aka riga aka sani: Dukansu software suna da nau'o'i daban-daban na musika.Da sanin lokacin da za a yi amfani da ɗaya ko sauran abu ne na mai amfani. Ba muyi nufin yin amfani da ɗaki na gidan (CAD) ba a cikin GIS cewa ni kaina software ne na KARANTA fiye da ɗaya wanda ya sanya tashoshi mai kyau (domin wannan mapublisher ko corel da dai sauransu).

    Yin aiwatar da batun tunani a gefen GIS a shekarun arcinfo ya zama kyakkyawan maganin magance matsalar kurakurai. Daga Arc / Info, mai suna Esri yana da waɗannan maballin da kuke magana akan:

    -buttons da aka yi amfani da su don ƙirƙirar (Lines, arcs, circles, polylines, points ...) Sai dai idan kuna magana game da abubuwan da kuka ƙi:

    -buttons don gyara (daidaici, kwafi, motsawa, juyawa, ƙarawa ...) Wadannan suna da su sai dai idan kun koma wani abu dabam.

    -Aiki sarrafa karko…. "Bari layukan da ke nesa na 10m su zo tare…." Wannan? "cewa su shiga inda suke tsakani"...Shin? “bari wani baka ya miqe ya shiga tsakanin wani”… Wannan? Yaya a cikin CAD to?

    A gefe guda, sha'awar hadewar software tana tafiya kafada da kafada da ayyukan masu amfani, misali ina kira da a kara samun hadin kai tsakanin ARCGIS Splus ko Matlab misali ...

    Ina tsammani ga cosntruccion na wani GIS aikin, da ya kwarara ginshiƙi for my tsanani: contruccion vector-tushen CAD, alphanumerical database a ARCGIS, yi da kuma image bincike a ERDAS (a kan m zaton wani CAD images ne kawai goyon bayan baya kuma babu bayanai tare da bayanin da ke cikin GIS) da kuma samfurin a cikin ARCGIS.

    Tun da ARCGIS (daga ARC / Info, UNIX a kalla) yana iya ɗaukar nau'i nau'i biyu a cikin haɗin magunguna, ba za a sami matsala ta asara ba. Don haka kawai ya ɓace cewa CAD zai iya warware matsalolin TOPOLOGICAL da kuma ƙungiyar GIS / CAD za su kasance saƙar zuma.

    Koyaya, duk abin da yake dangane da software tunda a cikin liveware, CADISTS dole ne su koyi kula da ayyukansu fiye da TAMBAYA (koguna a cikin wani layin kuma tituna a wani) Ina ƙin karɓar bayanan CAD tare da polygons waɗanda ba haka bane, layuka ba tare da ci gaba ba (kawai zane ne kawai), da baka da ke wakiltar koguna a cikin layin da ke wakiltar tituna….

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