CAD, GIS, ko duka?

... sayar da damar me ke faruwa? software na kyauta yana da wuya fiye da tabbatar da wani jami'in yin laifi (fashin teku) don me yasa ba software mai tsada.

lambar karewa Kwanan nan Bentley ya kaddamar da yakin neman bunkasa Bentley Map, ta yin amfani da ita a matsayin hujja, cewa ba lallai ba ne a yi tunani daban idan duka kayan aiki guda biyu zasu iya jagorancin su. A kan wannan, sau da yawa suna cewa muna kusa da rage rata kuma dakatar da amfani da kalmomin CAD / GIS dabam.

Akwai ra'ayoyi daban-daban, wasu ta hanyar tattalin arziki, wasu ta hanyar sana'a, wasu ta hanyar tawali'u, amma a aikace tare da ci gaba da fasaha, muna ci gaba da gwagwarmaya da wannan matsala.

1 Abinda ya dace Yana faruwa ne don aiwatar da aikin digiri (don amfani da misali), ƙaddamar da kayan aiki, na layin da ke shimfiɗawa, yanke, juya, ja, ɗaukar hoto, da dai sauransu. ci gaba da aiki a AutoCAD ko Microstation. Idan muka tambayi masu fasaha dalilin da yasa sun fi son za su ce:

ArcGIS ba shi da amfani ga wannan

GVSIG na da kayan aikin amma yana gudu sosai (a kan Windows)

Rajista ba a sani ba kuma ba shi da isassun kayayyakin aiki

Daidaita layi yana da sauki fiye da gyaran polygon

Taimako ga IntelliCAD ba daidai yake ba

Sa'an nan dole ne mu yi dukkan aikin spaghetti, a cikin matakan, launuka, da matakan da suka dace, sa'an nan kuma shige shi zuwa ArcGIS kuma a can gina polygons. Lokacin da muka yi haka zamu sami kurakuran topological (Wannan ba ya san CAD), muna yin gyare-gyare kuma mun dawo don yin canje-canje a cikin kundin, tare da sake zagayowar cewa a cikin matakai masu yawa sun ƙare wata rana. Amma a cikin aikin yau da kullum na sabuntawa na yau da kullum, don canza CAD da GIS zai yiwu wannan ƙarshe ya zama abin da ba daidai ba.

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Sa'an nan kuma, idan muna so muyi wani abu gaba, za mu sanya shi a cikin bayanan sirri (Na nace, ta hanyar misali), hadewar CAD, wanda muke gani a cikin adadi uku amma suna da daidaito fiye da 10 decimals, kawai suna da uku, wanda ke nufin cewa ƙananan ba shi da daidai daidai, idan dai ba zai shafi gudun ba na tafiyar matakai a cikin bayanai. A nan da sabuntawa ba tare da ka'idojin zane-zane yafi hadaddun ba.

Kuma ga tattalin arziki, wani karamin gari Dole ne zuba jari a software don gina takaddama na ainihi da kuma wani don yi kyawawan taswira. Idan municipality yana da laushi ko (ya gaskata cewa) ba ya buƙatar shirin aikin injiniya don amfani da akalla ɗaya na AutoCAD Lite da ArcGIS guda biyu da kari guda biyu; duk da haka cheap shi ne, sun kasance fiye da $ 4,000 (ba tare da horo ba). Wadanda suka yi aiki tare da ƙauyuka zasu san yadda za su sayar da wannan adadi ga mai ba da bashi wanda ya umurci fiye da magajin gari.

Na sani, akwai yankunan da ba su da wadannan matsaloli, amma yawanci na asali na Hispanic ... yana rayuwa ne a gaskiya don dalilai na son yin GIS da CAD ba tare da shan taba ba.

2 GIS ya kamata a sami damar CAD

Na fahimci cewa a lokacin da akwai ArcView 3x ba zai yiwu ba ga aiwatar da kayan aikin vector yi management topologies, amma a wannan lokaci ba na gane dalilin da yasa muke da kayan aikin a GIS kawai yi abin da CAD (30 abubuwa)

  • Maballin 12 don ƙirƙirar (Lines, arcs, circles, polylines, maki ...)
  • Maballin 12 don gyara (daidaici, kwafi, motsa, juyawa, ƙarawa ...)
  • Kyakkyawan kulawa da kwarewa (hakuri na nacewa da CAD)

Lalle ne, waɗannan abubuwa sun riga sun riga su, amma muna koka game da hanya. Ya kamata su zama kamar yadda aka tsara shirye-shiryen jama'a, tare da sauƙin kulawa da kwatance, nesa, hadewa, tsawo, jawo, clipping ... babu wani astral, kamar yadda AutoCAD ko Microstation ke yi. A wannan al'amari, mafi kyawun abin da muka gani shine ƙoƙarin gvSIG, wadda maimakon maimakon ƙarfafa hanyar yin vectors, an daidaita su zuwa ga nau'i na yi tare da AutoCAD, tare da miliyoyin masu amfani a duniya suna yin haka (Sanin cewa AutoCAD yana da hanyoyin da ba ta dace ba). Ayyuka na ci gaba da girma a cikin gudunmawar aiki lokacin da aka ɗora manyan hotuna ko manyan fayiloli; Tabbatar cewa a Linux yana gudanar da mafi alhẽri, amma ba a cikin Windows ba, kuma, a babban kalubale don tabbatar da duniyar cewa bude ba shine kafirta ba.

3 Akwai CAD da ta riga ta GIS

A cikin yanayin Bentley da Map na AutoCAD, matsayi ya haifar da damar GIS don kayan aikin da aka yi amfani dashi don aikin injiniya. Ci gaba ya kasance muhimmiyar, babu shakka game da shi, amma har yanzu yawancin kallo da kuma ayyukan da aka buga (shafukan zane) suna da raunin abin da GIS ke yi (ko mafi kyau). Har ila yau, na yi imanin cewa, aikin aiwatar da aiwatar da ayyuka nagari, har yanzu ... gashi; idan ba haka ba, bari mu ga masu amfani da yawa na AutoCAD (miliyoyin) da kuma nawa (da za su so) na Kamfanin AutoCAD (ko Civil 3D); ba saboda la'akari da farashin farashin ba, saboda kwatancin zai iya zama daidai idan muka yi tare da masu amfani waɗanda suke amfani da lasisi a hanyar da aka kashe. Kusan wannan yana nunawa tare da Microstation da Bentley Map, ba tare da samun shiga cikin sassan labaran da kuma interaperability (don Allah).

4 CAD da GIS su ne batutuwa guda biyu.

Akwai matsayi (tabbatacce) wanda ya ce duka batutuwan su ne yankuna na musamman guda biyu kuma cewa ba za su iya iya yin duka tare da kayan aikin ba; wani ɓangare na wannan hali ya gaji tunaninmu na 'yan shekaru da suka wuce:

... CAD shine don samar da kyamarori masu kyau da GIS don kyakkyawan taswira.

Amma wannan ƙwarewa, kamar yadda ka'idodin sun tsufa kuma an ƙaddamar da su ta hanyar software marasa kyauta, sun ɓace rushewa, manufofi irin su OGC a gefen GIS, aiwatar da manufar topology, Amfani da XML dannawa cikin BIM ra'ayi a gefen CAD, da sauransu, sun sanya CAD ba gani a matsayin zane hukumar amma ɓangare na aikin da real fannoni (Architecture, Civil Engineering, surveying, da dai sauransu).

Wannan yanayin ya ce ƙwarewar ba za ta kasance a cikin software ba (CAD / GIS) amma a yankin aikace-aikacen. Don ba da misali, zana hanyoyi ya kamata ya zama ƙwarewar software wanda yake yin haka, tare da daidaitattun CAD da kuma damar da za su ba da shi ga shirye-shiryen da za su yi amfani da maƙalli don yin hoto a ƙarƙashin tsarin GIS. Hakazalika, ladabi ya kamata ya sauka a cikin tarihin kuma bayanin GIS ya zama mai nuna hoto ko tabbacin gaskiyar wanda za'a iya tsara sakonnin daga gefen GIS, tuntuɓi halayensa, san haɗinta zuwa wasu bayanai; yayin da daga GIS gefen abubuwan da ke wakilta masu ban mamaki, haɗawa da bayanai da kuma iya gyara tare da ainihin abin da CAD zai so.

Amma don haka ... mun kasance masu gaskiya a nesa, ba domin babu wani riga an kafa, ƙananan kayan aiki sun riga sunyi yawa, amma dole ne ka motsa manyan na'urori na software don aiwatar da shi a hanya mai amfani.

4 Kamar yadda na gan shi

Ina tsammanin na dan lokaci, zamu ci gaba da yin amfani da shirye-shiryen biyu don wakiltar dukiyar ta: gyara kayanta a CAD, nazarin shi a GIS da gyaggyara shi a duka biyu. A ra'ayina, abubuwa da dama da muka yi mun ƙaddamar da kyautar kyafaffen da aka rasa kyauta ta amfani da ita don dalilai masu amfani da fasahar fasaha (matsala) sun manta da dalilin dalili na mutum (warware matsalar).

image42 Shirin zane yana da daukakarsa, saboda babu wanda ya ƙirƙira wani hanya don yin zane da hannu, kuma an ƙaddamar da kayan lantarki amma tsarin tsarin aikin su ba a cikin kayan da ke cikin tebur ba amma a cikin abin da muke yi a can. Hotunan da aka tsara su ne don yin taswira a karkashin tsarin ma'auni da kuma dacewa, munyi tunani game da buga shi amma ba mu taba shakkar amfani da shi ba don manufar mutane.

Ba za mu rasa hankali ba, saboda yanzu fasaha ya kamata ya sauƙaƙe mana da inganta wannan Amfani. Don haka, lokaci ya kasance lokacin da zuba jarurruka ya dakatar da kasancewa game da tsarin, na'urorin sarrafawa, pixels, labels da brands, don zuba jari lokaci a cikin dalilin da aka halicce su: HARKARKA. Samfur daga gare ta, kamar yadda dā, don keɓe kanmu don samar da kasuwanci, wadata da amfana ga mutane.

Amma ra'ayin ba daidai ba ne, kuma a ganina, shekaru masu zuwa na 5, saboda yawancin ayyukan da aka gabatar a farkon, za mu ci gaba da yin abubuwa guda (duba ba mu daina yin hakan a Google Earth). Kuma masu samar da software na CAD / GIS:

  • A gefen ESRI, watakila bari mu ga cigaban a cikin iyawar CAD, da fatan ba za a sake koyon yin amfani da maimaita launi ba.
  • A kan hanyar AutoDesk, zaɓin Ƙasar 3D don yin taswirar suna kama da aikin injiniya. Tsarin da yake da kyau a gare ni.
  • A kan Bentley, inganta PowerMap don CAD mai ƙananan farashi don samun damar GIS, kuma watakila don sauƙaƙe aiwatar da smoothing.
  • A gefe na software mai ƙananan basira: Manifold, Tatuk GIS, Global Mapper, IntelliCAD, sami ƙasa ta hanyar yin abin da sunan software ba ya yi.

Idan software na Open Source (ci) ya ƙetare wannan shamaki, hakika zamu kalli baya a can, ba kawai ta yanayin tattalin arziki (wanda muka riga muka gani), amma ta hanyar magance matsaloli na kowa (abin da yake riga ya yi) da kuma cin zarafin duniya fiye da fashin teku.

Pessimistic, watakila; deluded, tabbata. Kuma ku: Yaya kuke gani?

6 yana maida zuwa "CAD, GIS, ko duka?"

  1. Hiar Cesar

    Abinda ya faru shine cewa masu gudanar da bincikenku su zama UTM sun yi daidai da abin da zai iya kasancewa a cikin yankunan UTM na duniya na UNUMX na duniya, saboda haka zaku iya bayyana wanda kuke ciki. Hakanan, Datum shine kwatancen ellipsoid, don ba ku ra'ayi, kamar idan WGS60 ya kasance a matakin teku kuma wani Datum kamar NAD 84 ya wuce zuwa mita MNUMX na sama, shafin zai iya zama iri ɗaya kuma a lokaci guda bugun bugun zuciya da Tsawon iri ɗaya iri ɗaya ne, amma irin nisan da aka tsara akan waɗannan spheroids daban-daban ba daidai suke ba. Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa galibi ana kiran tsarin UTM "hasashen."

    Don yin wannan, a ArcGIS, ka danna-dama a kan Layer kana so ka georeference da kuma zabi "Properties" zaži, sa'an nan da panel bayyana muku zabi "source" tab.
    Akwai button a zabi "source" sa'an nan ka tafi da akwai ji nemi a kimanta tsarin (UTM), sa'an nan ka zabi daidai yankin da kuma, idan ka kasance a cikin arewacin ko kudancin yammancin duniya.

    Tare da wannan fayil ɗinku an ba da izinin zuwa ga datti da kuma yanki.

    A gaisuwa.

  2. mai kyau safe, ina taya murna l m blog cewa iyawa na Lucenzo shakka na zama DXF fayil shp ta CAD fayil ne georeferenced kuma lalle ne, haƙĩƙa, a cikin GIS, wanda ba zato ba tsammani arcgis amfani 9.3 ni da tsarawa bayyana amma kamar yadda san ko su wanene na san cewa zan sa da bayanai datum da shi ne, amma ba yadda na gustari san wannan yaque've duba ko'ina a kan yanar gizo amma ba zai iya samun real amsar zai ƙwarai godiya ka iya amsa tambaya don Allah ne cordenadas utm tare da gsw84

  3. «» »Jose Maria ce Maris 16, 2010 - 8: 36 pm
    yadda za a zana zane a cikin layi zuwa baka ko jigon kallo »» »

    resp: daga taswirar autocad ka fitar da samfurori na layi, polygons (samar da topologies) da maki.

    to warware matsalolin topological kurakurai a CAD akwai da yawa erramients kamar AutoCAD jawo taswirar clenup taimako cire kuskure da CAD fayiloli kafin fitarwa ko amfani, kamar yadda related to objectsdata siffofi ko yadudduka. kuma a ArcGIS da kuma sauran software GIS kamar yadda OpenJUMP zama topological validators a yanayin da na yi amfani da biyu da ciwon encuenta a arcgis ne muhimmanci ƙuduri xy (juriya) da kuma q cewa ya dogara a kan ingancin da Layer, tare da OpenJUMP iya duba polygons tare da ramukan ko vertices wani m ake bukata nesa ƙananan kusassari.
    gaisuwa

  4. Daga ArcGIS zaka kaddamar da shi a matsayin Layer, to sai ka sanya shi cikin Featureclass

  5. yadda za a zana zane a fadi zuwa bidiyo ko zuwa ra'ayi

  6. hola

    Na ga cewa kuna magana daga gwaninta na "CADISTA".
    Abubuwa na farko da aka riga aka sani: Dukansu software suna da nau'o'i daban-daban na musika.Da sanin lokacin da za a yi amfani da ɗaya ko sauran abu ne na mai amfani. Ba muyi nufin yin amfani da ɗaki na gidan (CAD) ba a cikin GIS cewa ni kaina software ne na KARANTA fiye da ɗaya wanda ya sanya tashoshi mai kyau (domin wannan mapublisher ko corel da dai sauransu).

    Yin aiwatar da batun tunani a gefen GIS a shekarun arcinfo ya zama kyakkyawan maganin magance matsalar kurakurai. Daga Arc / Info, mai suna Esri yana da waɗannan maballin da kuke magana akan:

    -buttons da aka yi amfani da su don ƙirƙirar (Lines, arcs, circles, polylines, points ...) Sai dai idan kuna magana game da abubuwan da kuka ƙi:

    -buttons don gyara (daidaici, kwafi, motsawa, juyawa, ƙarawa ...) Wadannan suna da su sai dai idan kun koma wani abu dabam.

    -Amfani mai rikici ... «Ku shiga layin da ke nesa na 10 m ...» Wannan? "Yanke su a inda suke shiga" ... Wannan? «Don mika n arc don tsaida wani» ... Wannan? Kamar yadda a CAD?

    A wani ɓangaren bukatun haɗin haɗin haɗi sun shiga hannu tare da aikin masu amfani, ga ni misali na kira don haɗakarwa tsakanin ARCGIS Splus ko Matlab misali ...

    Ina tsammani ga cosntruccion na wani GIS aikin, da ya kwarara ginshiƙi for my tsanani: contruccion vector-tushen CAD, alphanumerical database a ARCGIS, yi da kuma image bincike a ERDAS (a kan m zaton wani CAD images ne kawai goyon bayan baya kuma babu bayanai tare da bayanin da ke cikin GIS) da kuma samfurin a cikin ARCGIS.

    Tun da ARCGIS (daga ARC / Info, UNIX a kalla) yana iya ɗaukar nau'i nau'i biyu a cikin haɗin magunguna, ba za a sami matsala ta asara ba. Don haka kawai ya ɓace cewa CAD zai iya warware matsalolin TOPOLOGICAL da kuma ƙungiyar GIS / CAD za su kasance saƙar zuma.

    Koyaya, duk wannan yana cikin kayan software tunda a cikin rayayye, CADISTS zasuyi koyi sarrafa sarrafa ayyukan su ORDERLY (koguna a cikin yanki ɗaya da kuma tituna a wata) Ina ƙin karɓar bayanan CAD tare da polygons waɗanda ba irin wannan ba, layin ba tare da ci gaban yanayin ba (kawai hoto), da kuma tarkace waɗanda ke wakiltar koguna a cikin shimfidawa waɗanda ke wakiltar tituna….

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