The Twilight Scale

Wannan labarin mai ban sha'awa ne da Regis Wellausen ya buga a cikin MundoGEO Magazine, wanda ke tunatar da mu game da rashin fahimtar waɗannan maganganun na Catastro2014 da aka nuna ta sama da shekaru ashirin da suka wuce, musamman ma dangane da samfurin gyare-gyare a matsayin maye gurbin al'adun gargajiya.

Da shawara na matakan matsayi wanda ya maye gurbin tsari mai tsufa.

Manufar sikelin - dangantaka tsakanin ma'auni a cikin shirin da girman girmansa a filin - yana da wani ɓangare na 'yan Adam na DNA tun lokacin da manyan hanyoyi sun karfafa girman girman taswirar daga 1.500. Bisa ga muhimmiyar "kuskuren hoto", Ka'idodin fasaha don samar da su ƙayyade, ga kowane sikelin, kuskuren da dole ne muyi la'akari tsakanin shuka da ƙasa, a cikin yanke shawara yau da kullum a lokacin amfani da waɗannan takardu.
A Brazil, da Register Kauce wa kuskure Cartográfica (PEC), wanda shi ne yanzu a sauki marigayi popularization ¡adari 89.817 / 1984 musamman domin analog aerophotogrammetry tabbatar iri uku quality, mai rahusa, kira Class C (wanda yake shi ne muna da), kuskuren saura na 1,0 millimeters na sikelin. Haka kuma, a lokacin da "daukar" a kan shuke-shuke, mu DNA rike cewa memory kuskure da kuma lamirinsu kwayoyin vector processor sa duk lissafin a gefe na kuskure a cikin filin. Alal misali, idan muka auna da sikelin kashi shigar da dubu mita a shuka 1: 10.000, dole ne mu sani cewa filin tsakanin 990 da 1.010 zai sami mita.

da karuwar sikelin
Siffar a cikin 1864: daki-daki na tsire-tsire na wani makami a cikin Daular Brazil.

Matsayin Digital a cikin Digital Digital

Babban gaskiyar ita ce ba zamuyi wadannan ayyukan a kan tashoshi mai mahimmanci a kan takarda ba kuma ba mu damu ba game da ainihin samfurori na karshe, sa'an nan kuma babu wanda zai auna ma'auni akan su. Abin da ke da muhimmanci shi ne kawai ingancin da suke nunawa da / ko takardun shaida ne ra'ayoyinmu da ra'ayoyi. Tsarin bayani na sararin samaniya da samfurori na karshe sun riga sun kasance kuma zasu zama dijital na yau da kullum. A wannan matsakaici, duk bayanan - wanda dole ne a sanya shi zuwa tsarin kulawa na Cartesian - ko da yaushe hikimar tantance, kyale mu da yardar kaina bambanta da zuƙowa sikelin da kuma zabi a cikin ilmin lissafi absolutism na wani kashi na lamba osnap magnetism ko daidai umurnin - wani abu iya tsammani ba ga 500 shekaru!. Saboda haka, babu wani maimaituwa kuskure a kan mu gani daidaito ko kwanciyar hankali zane, muhimmai daga mai hoto kuskure, kuma a lokacin da muka karanta ko lokacin da muka tsara. The kawai latent erro ya kamata mu damu da shi ne maimaita m Hanyar sarari bayanai amfani, shi Vector (CAD, GIS) ko matrix (Images) ne, da mafi waɗannan ba al'amurran da suka shafi karin alaka da "mai hoto kuskure".

Matsayin Matsayi

A lokaci positional ƙuduri da aka gabatar daga sauran "shawarwari" duqufar zuwa tauraron dan adam images, kamar lissafi, radiometric, na boko, da dai sauransu, wanda aka fãta shimfiɗaɗɗa a farkon 90 zuwa tabbata mu na cartographic daidaito na sojojin kõma daga Hoton hotuna na dijital - samfurin da ya wuce bayanan hotuna na baya.
Positional ƙuduri aka bayyana a nan a matsayin daidaito georeferencing na image, cewa shi ne, bambanci a matsayin (tsarawa) na wani dijital karfi dangi zuwa ta gaskiya matsayi a ƙasa, ko kuma, mafi determinedly magana, a Kashe -abaitawar bambance-bambance tsakanin ma'auni da aka yi amfani dashi, a cikin hoton ko filin. Ana amfani da ƙuduri na matsayi tare da wannan sauki don daidaitaccen bayanin samfurin. A wani dijital duba, misali, da positional ƙuduri na karshe samfurin zai kasance da daidaitaccen karkacewa daga cikin bambance-bambance tsakanin tsarawa daga abubuwa, karanta a cikin (CAD, misali) software da baya auna a cikin filin (tare da GPS, misali ). Idan yana da sha'awa ga mai zane da kuma tabbacin cewa babu wani abu da ya fi kusa da mita 1 na halin da ake ciki, lokacin da aka samo su, wannan shine ƙuduri na matsayi wanda mai tabbatar da binciken ya kamata ya rubuta. Wannan, a bi da bi, za su kasance 'yanci don zaɓar hanyar aiwatar da kisa bisa ga fasahar da aka yi amfani da su, mafi yawan za su kasance ko iyakokin alhakin ƙayyadadden ƙimar.
Yayin da aka kammala, za a iya amfani da ƙuduri na matsayi a matsayin mafita mai mahimmanci na ma'auni na tallace-tallace na sararin samaniya a matsakaici na zamani, mahimmanci don yanke shawarar ƙaddamar da iyaka ko kuma damar yin amfani da aikace-aikace. A gefe guda, kasancewa mai mahimmanci ta hanyar hanya mai kyau, matsakaicin matsayi na ainihi ne ga samfurin kuma ƙarƙashin nauyin nauyin fasahar sa.
Wannan yana yiwuwa a yi rajistar rubutun Nassoshi na fasaha (ART) kuma yana tabbatar da shi a cikin sauyawa da amfani da wasu. A kowane lokaci, za a iya tabbatar da ƙuduri na matsayi ta hanyar aunawa samfurin samfurin samfurori da aka ƙayyade ko abubuwa a cikin filin. By lokacin da muka riga da daban-daban masu auna sigina, samar da kasuwanci high-ƙuduri da hotuna da kuma low cost, duk zabin orthorectified da Jigila Radar topography Mission (SRTM) ko Advanced Spaceborne thermal watsi da Tafakkuri Radiometer / Global Digital tadawa Model (Aster / Gdem ) georreferenciarlas isasshen isa ya canza su a cikin m cartographic databases dabaru, iya maye gurbin ko kari tsada da kuma jinkirin trabajaos filin, da muhimmanci ga ayyukan da aikin injiniya ayyukan.

Aplicaciones

Misali na muhimmancinsa da aikace-aikace za a iya kiyaye shi a cikin adadi. An nuna, wani hali na georeferencing na yankunan karkara dukiya (10.267 / 01 dokar), da bambance-bambance a matakan kokuwa kula "P", samu da sauri a tsaye Hanyar (GPS L1 / L2), aka bar, da kuma matakan kai tsaye a kan babban hoto, dama. A tauraron dan adam image WolrdView2 na 2010, aka georeferenced tare da wani sakamakon wani positional ƙuduri 1,5 mita, ko wani daga cikin Figures iya ba su sãɓã ba ta fiye da mita da rabi na ainihin matsayi, wanda yake da a halin yanzu ya yarda da iyaka ga Cigaba cikin kulawa da maki. Kamar yadda aka gani, duk bambance-bambance ba su da cikakkiyar daidaito. Karbuwa na positional ƙuduri 1,5 2,5 da mita, bi da bi, damar da baza na hadari aikace-aikace na m haska don rage kudin da lokaci a kayyade tsarawa daga vertices ba monumentados da na halitta iyakoki bayyane daga sama. Professional georeferencing na daban-daban images da wannan positional ƙuduri ilimin kididdiga tsara karatu a cikin wannan iyaka da kuma, sabili da haka, a karo na biyu sana'a iya duba da lura na farko. Mai shi ya lashe, wanda ya biya bashin farashi, mai sana'a ya lashe, wanda yana da ƙananan kudin tare da wannan riba; da aikatãwa kasar, wanda rage lokaci da kuma ci gaba da kuma takardar shaida miliyoyin Properties.

da karuwar sikelin
Haɗin gwiwar yankunan karkara: Tsarkuka "P" a gefen ƙofar, wanda aka auna tare da GPS L1 / L2 (kai tsaye) da kuma kai tsaye a kan hoton WorldView 2 (kai tsaye). Hoton yana da ƙudurin geometric na mita 0,5 (lura da shanu a kan kai tsaye) kuma an ba shi kyauta don isa matakan matsayi na 1,5 mita.

Ƙananan bambance-bambance (mita)
BVC P 0658 - P3 = 0,91
BVP P 0657 - P2 = 0,43
BVC P 0656 - P1 = 0,55

Game da sikelin na duniya, babu makawa ta dakatar da kasancewa mai nuna goyon baya ga ƙayyadaddun kwarewar samfurori na samfurori na dijital kuma ya zama mai taimakawa mataimaki. Yana da kamar Google Earth, inda yake samuwa a ƙasa, yana tsaye, idan ka "Tashi", menene muhimmancinsa? Me muke so mu sani, a gaskiya, duk lokacin da muka samo wani nau'i, auna ma'auni ko samun haɗin kai, kuma menene matsakaicin matsayi na hotunanku, don sanin abin da za mu iya yi tare da bayanan da aka fitar. A halin yanzu, zancenku da ƙididdigarku zai kasance a cikin sasanninta da tunaninmu. Kyauta mai daraja ga wata muhimmiyar hanya ga shekaru 500, cewa daga cikin abubuwan da yawa suka kawo ga kakanninmu kuma sun taimaka mana mu gina kyakkyawan duniya da muke da shi yanzu.

Daya Amsa zuwa "The Ocaso de la Escala"

  1. Wani labarin mai ban sha'awa wanda yayi la'akari da amfani da sikelin a cikin wannan duniya na zamani wanda bai dace ba. Muraran, ina ganin sosai nasara, zai sucribirlo amma, a ganina, ba na zaton cewa sikelin da ya kamata a ajiye a lokacin da samar da wani hoto, cartographic da planimetric bayanai saboda, ko da yake samfurin har ma da kayayyakin ne dijital, ko da yaushe, jima ko daga baya, ko ta wani hanya jiki ko dijital sake, shi zai kawo ci gaban ga wani ra'ayi, da kuma cewa shi ne lokacin da ka bukata don amfani da wadannan Concepts kuskure, yabo, daidaito, da dai sauransu.

    Oh! Abin farin ciki don jin dadi na geofumadas, da na fara yin sharhi kuma, da kyau, ba lallai ba ne a gane shi, daidai?

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