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Fahimtar yadda aka tsara UTM

Mutane da yawa suna tambaya koyaushe yadda za a canza haɗin haɗin ƙasa zuwa UTM. Zamuyi amfani da kewayon wannan otal din kuma muyi bayani da abinda muke da shi yadda aikin hasashen UTM yake don kawar da wasu shubuhohi na asali.

Ina ba da shawara idan kun riga kuka mallaki batun, kada ku ɓatar da mintuna don gundurar da kanku ... amma kuna iya danganta mu zuwa shafinku :). Ba makasudin wannan post ɗin bane don magana game da tsinkaye, saboda cewa akwai wasu labarai da yawa, asali yana da ban sha'awa muyi bayanin yadda ake kulawa, zamuyi amfani da Google Earth don nuna misalai.

Ƙididdigar geographic

Geographic tsarawa ne daga daga cikin duniya a ~ angarorin kamar yadda za ka da wani apple, yin tsaye cuts meridians (kira tsawo) da kuma a kwance cuts yi layi daya (da ake kira latitudes).

Don yin la'akari da latitudes shine ɓangare na equator, arewa ko kudu daga zero zuwa 90 digiri a kwakoki kuma waɗannan biyu halves ake kira hemispheres.

Dangane da dogaye, waɗannan ana fara lissafa su daga Greenwich meridian da ake kira da sifirin meridian zuwa gabas, an jera su har sai sun kai digiri 180, inda wannan meridian ɗin ta raba duniya (ana kiranta antemeridian), ana kiran wannan rabin " Gabas ". Sannan sauran rabin ana kiran shi Yamma, gabaɗaya ana wakiltar W (yamma), meridians suna farawa daga Greenwich amma a kishiyar shugabanci daga sifili zuwa digiri 180.

1 geographic amfani da shi

Ta haka ne jagora a Spain zai iya zama Latsa 39 N da tsawon 3 W, wani haɗin kai a Peru zai zama Latitude 10 S da 74 W. na tsawon lokaci.

Wannan hanyar tantance abubuwan haɗin da ba shi da alaƙa da can sama da matakin teku, tunda veto ne wanda yake farawa daga tsakiyar duniya zuwa saman, wannan shine tsinkayen da Google Earth ke amfani da shi, kuma wannan ita ce hanya na tsarawa da fayilolin kml ke amfani da su, bugu da aari ana ƙara spheroid wanda yake shine hanya don kimanta saman duniya don dalilai masu aunawa. Google yana amfani da WGS84 azaman mahimmin bayani (ko da yake akwai kayan aikin da zai ba ka damar shigar da haɗin UTM cikin Google Earth). Babban fa'idar wannan hasashe shi ne cewa haɗin gwiwar ya keɓanta a saman duniya, kodayake gudanar da ayyukan don ƙididdige nisa ko bearings ba shi da amfani ga "masu ƙididdiga na geographers".

Ƙungiyoyin UTM

Ƙididdiga na UTM fara daga ra'ayin yin la'akari da lakabi mai zurfi a matakin teku daga zane-zane na cylindrical Traverso de Mercator. Meraidiyoyi ne ke raba duniya koyaushe, a bangarorin digiri shida wadanda suka hada jimillar 60, ana kiran wadannan yankuna. Lambobin waɗannan yankuna yana farawa daga antemeridian, daga sifili zuwa 60 daga yamma zuwa gabas.

Yankunan da ke samar da daidaito sun tafi daga 84 S zuwa 80 N, kuma an ƙidaya su tare da haruffa waɗanda ke zuwa daga C zuwa X (an cire “I” da “O”), kowane ɓangare yana da digiri 8 na latitude banda X wanda yake da digiri 12.

Ana amfani da A, B, Y, Z musamman ga iyakar polar; Google ba ya hada da wannan sashi saboda yana buƙatar ƙididdigar infinitesimal a cikin wani yanki na sha'awa kawai ga polar bears :).

1 geographic amfani da shi

1 geographic amfani da shiA cikin dukkanin yankunan 60 sune digiri na 6 kowanne, kazalika

  • Mexico ya fada tsakanin yankunan 11 da 16
  • Honduras a cikin 16 da kuma sashi a 17
  • Peru tsakanin 17 da 19
  • Spain tsakanin 29 da 31.

Ididdigar spheroid mai nuni zuwa matakin teku yana sanya baka da aka kafa ta waɗannan layukan suna da ma'aunai waɗanda suke kamanceceniya da gaskiyar ma'aunin gida. Wannan bayanin spheroid din, a da (sananne a Latin Amurka) shine NAD27, a halin yanzu ana amfani da NAD83 sosai, wanda mutane da yawa suka sani WGS84. Ta hanyar samun bayanai daban-daban na kwance, grids na duka spheroids sun bambanta.

Don haka yanki yana da farawa x, y daidaitawa, a game da Amurka ta Tsakiya, iyaka tsakanin yanki 15 da 16 yana da kusan daidaitawar 178,000 kuma yana zuwa sama ko ƙasa da 820,000. Wannan zangon daidaitawa iri daya ne ga kowane yanki, a daidai wannan filin amma mun bayyana, ba layin orthogonal bane amma don dalilai ne na auna gida, yayi kamanceceniya. Iyakokin da ke tsakanin yankuna suna rufe, amma duk wani ɓangare na tsakiya, inda akwai madaidaiciyar ƙawancen tsaye wanda tsawonsa ya kai 300,000 da aka sani da "gabas ta ƙarya", don haka duka biyu zuwa hagu da dama na wannan meridian babu raka'a korau.
Latitude (Y hadewa) ya fara ne daga 0.00 a matakan kuma ya hau zuwa arewacin arewa tare da haɗin kusa da 9,300,000.

Ƙungiyar 16

Taswirar da muka sani don dalilai na cadastral, tare da Sikeli 1: 10,000 ko 1: 1,000 tashi daga bangare na wannan sashi, a cikin wani post na gaba za mu bayyana yadda ya zo wannan bangare.

1 geographic amfani da shi

Geographic tsarawa, kamar 16N 35W ne na musamman, duk da haka, a UTM daidaita matsayin kasancewa X = 664,235 Y = 1,234,432 karkacewa daya batu maimaita ta a cikin 60 yankunan guda latitud, duka a cikin Arewa, kuma a cikin ta Kudu. Yana bukatar wani yanki da kuma ayyana yammancin duniya inda shi nasa.

Bayan haka dukkanin haɗin gwiwar za su mallaki yanayin tunani. Dangane da haɗin UTM, idan yana cikin NAD27 ba zai yi daidai da WGS84 ba saboda lamuran da ke samar da grid ɗin ba su dace ba. Don canza haɗin UTM zuwa tsarawar Geographic ko akasin haka, akwai aikace-aikacen da ke sauƙaƙe shi, kamar su Shafukan tsararraki.

Yana da mahimmanci a fahimci cewa tsarin CAD a gargajiyance ba ya tallafawa tsinkaye, kamar su AutoCAD ko Microstation, kawai AutoCAD Map3D ko Microstation Geographics suka yi (Kamar na AutoCAD 2009 da Microstation 8.9 XM suke yi). Lokacin amfani da taswirar yanki a cikin AutoCAD, tare da haɗin UTM, abin da muke da shi shine taswira a cikin jirgin Cartesian, amma dole ne mu fahimci cewa waɗannan daidaito iri ɗaya suna nan a cikin wasu yankuna 60 a wannan wuri ɗaya a cikin yankin arewa da kudu; saboda haka, ya zama mai rikitarwa don aiki a cikin UTM tare da kaddarorin wanda ke tsakanin biyu yankuna.

Don yin hulɗa tare da UTM, Google Earth da Excel haɗin gwiwar, waɗannan alaƙa zasu iya amfani sosai:

UTM kula a Google Earth

Canza canje-canjen gefuna zuwa UTM tare da Excel

Canza saitunan UTM zuwa Girgirar tare da Excel

Golgi Alvarez

Marubuci, mai bincike, kwararre a cikin Samfuran Gudanar da Ƙasa. Ya halarci Conceptualization da aiwatar da model kamar: National System of Property Administration SINAP a Honduras, Model na Management of hadin gwiwa Municipalities a Honduras, Integrated Model na Cadastre Management - Registry a Nicaragua, System of Administration na Territory SAT a Colombia. . Editan shafin ilimin Geofumadas tun daga 2007 kuma mahaliccin Kwalejin AulaGEO wanda ya haɗa da darussa sama da 100 akan GIS - CAD - BIM - batutuwan Twins na Dijital.

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58 Comments

  1. Ya dogara da abin da software ke da shi don duba shi.
    Wannan haɗin da kake buƙatar ƙarin buƙatar yana buƙatar yankin, tun da an sake maimaita shi a kowane ɓangaren 60, duka a arewacin kudancin kudu da kudancin.

  2. Ina da waɗannan halayen kuma ina bukatar in san wurin, abin da zan yi
    N1300113 E 1040271. KYA KA

  3. Ba zan iya ganin hoton abin da kuke nunawa ba. Amma dole ne ku fahimci cewa haɗin gwiwar utm ba na musamman ba ne, ana maimaita su a kowane yanki a latitude ɗaya.

  4. Ta yaya nake aiki a kan georeferencing? Ina cikin yankin iyaka tsakanin 13 da 14,,,. daga fayil din wani gari a zone 13 da wani file na wani gari a zone 14 sai na manna su a cikin file guda domin ganin yadda yake, tambayata ita ce me yasa suka yi nisa alhalin a gaskiya sun kusa haduwa? Na riga na duba shi a kan google duniya kuma komai yana da kyau, kawai suna da nisa kuma da alama sun kifar da wani birni a zone 13 gaban 14 alhalin ba haka yake ba.

  5. sannu. Zai iya zama cewa za ku iya taimaka mini da waɗannan masu zuwa: a cikin filin koyaushe ina ɗaukar maki tare da gps, a cikin UTM sannan kuma zazzage bayanai don yin aiki akan tsarin jirgin ruwa a AutoCAD, amma lokacin da nake son fitarwa zuwa taswirar cadastral, aya ɗaya kawai ya bayyana. amma ba cikakken zane ba, menene wannan saboda …… Ecuador

  6. Kyakkyawar haƙurinka da karimci don raba iliminka, Geofumed!

  7. Ta yaya zan samu na da maki 2 hakar ma'adinai grids ba a hako ma'adinai sauƙaƙewa a Bolivia idan ta haruffa ne a cikin psad 56 da kuma na tsarawa ne WGS 84 don Allah idan ka taimake ni saboda na wayar salula GPS na tafi dogon desplasado

  8. Fernando Ojeda Fabrairu, 2017 a
    Ina so in canzawa zuwa UTM haɗin gwanon dutsen mai tsabta Popocatepetl wanda shine:
    Latsa 19 ° 13'20.00 "
    Length 98 ° 37¨40.00 "

    Kuma tsarin lissafi mafi kyau bai yarda da tsawon 98 ba.
    Yaya ya kamata in ci gaba idan ya gaya mini cewa ba zan tafi daga 80 da 90 ba, lokacin da bayanai ke da 9

    UTM Z14 WGS84
    2125458.053 539124.2666 14

  9. Ina so in canzawa zuwa UTM haɗin gwanon dutsen mai tsabta Popocatepetl wanda shine:
    Latsa 19 ° 13'20.00 "
    Length 98 ° 37¨40.00 "

    Kuma tsarin lissafi mafi kyau bai yarda da tsawon 98 ba.
    Ta yaya zan ci gaba idan ka gaya mini kada in tafi daga 80 da 90 lokacin da bayanai ke da 98?

  10. Shin wani zai iya taimake ni in taswira girman girman ƙasa ?? Ina da hanzarin 4 da tsawo. Idan wani ya miƙa zan aika bayanan da nake da kuma zan gode maka sosai. Na gode

  11. Hi, Bruno.
    Ba mu da kyau a kan abin da kake faruwa:
    Wataƙila idan kun yi cikakken bayani game da lamarin: Shin murabba'in ne abin da za ku yi? Shin adadi ba daidai ba ne?
    Za ku raba shi akan taswira?

  12. Ni sabon zuwa rike GPS kuma maps, tambaye ni misali ya dauki wasu da maki a x, y (4 maki) da mãkirci a kan wani tsauni, idan yankin ne 4 kadada, kuma ya zama, sau 100 kowane x, da kuma Don Allah, daidaita. Godiya (bruficarrasco123-4qoutlook.com)

  13. Ba zan san yadda zan fahimce shi ba, ya danganta da mai canzawa da kuke amfani da shi. Ka tuna cewa idan mai canzawa ya haɗa da wannan karya, ba zai taɓa daidaita UTMs na yau da kullun ba, waɗanda Google ke nunawa.

  14. Hi! Ina fatan za ku iya taimaka mini, domin na yi kokarin komai kuma baya aiki:
    Ina ƙoƙarin sauya wasu haɗin gwargwadon wuri zuwa UTM, ta amfani da dama daga cikin masu juyo da ke kan intanet. Da farko na yi tunani ba daidai ba ne, amma na duba shi kuma a duk ina samun wannan.
    Ina neman daidaitawar wasu tsaunuka a Mexico; Ina amfani da Google Earth don wannan kuma yana ba ni haɗin gwiwar yanki. Matsalar ita ce, lokacin da zan canza su zuwa UTM, na tashi daga shiyyar 13 zuwa 14 kuma wannan gaba ɗaya yana canza tsarin daidaitawa, a cikin "x", zuwa irin wannan matakin cewa dusar ƙanƙara ta Colima (mafi kusa da Tekun Pacific) ya nuna. Ni mai daidaitawa tare da 600,000, yayin da Nevado de Toluca (wanda ke tsakiyar ƙasar) ya ba ni ƙimar 400,000. Ban gane dalili ba.
    Godiya a gaba

  15. Idan ka bayyana kanka mafi kyau, zamu iya kokarin taimaka maka.

  16. Zan ba ku misali wanda ba wani abu ba ne mafi misaltuwa don ku fahimce shi. Ka yi tunanin wani spheroid da ke wucewa a matakin teku, wani kuma ya wuce mita 200 a sama, wani kuma ya wuce mita 1000 a sama. Dukkansu spheroid ne na tunani, kuma ma'ana iri ɗaya ce a cikin kowannensu amma grid ɗin ba haka bane, don haka maki UTM na iya samun daidaituwa daban-daban akan wani datum daban.

  17. yadda yadin tasirin ya yi amfani da wani datti

  18. yadda za a lissafa nisa a kilomita (sikelin) a cikin ƙirar

  19. Dubi wani batu a cikin yankin sha'awar ku a cikin Google Earth. Idan arewacin equator ne, shiyyar 17 arewa ce. Idan yana kasa, shi ne Zone 17 South.

  20. Hi, za ku iya taimake ni da wata tambaya:
    Download wani dem cewa shi ne a WGS84, na bukatar Project shi zuwa UTM na binciken yankin ne kudu maso yammacin Colombia (Nariño), abin tambaya shi ne, wanda yanki na amfani da su domin yin UTM tsinkaya, Zone 17s 17n Caravan.
    Na gode da bayaninku kuma ku gafarta jahilci a kan batun.

  21. To, ban gane ba.
    Aika mana daidaitawar UTM don ganin, saboda ba zan iya ganin matsalar ba.

  22. Lokacin da na shiga na farko dogon, lat fada cikin teku, a cikin gulf na mexico. Amfani da WGS84
    Ga waɗannan masu biyo baya, waɗanda suke UTM, sun kasance suna ƙayyade wane yanki suke.

    Tabbatacce, yana da hanyoyi masu yawa da kuma daidaita tsarin da kake buƙatar ya bayyana ta wanda ya dauki su.

  23. Na gode da rashin jin daɗin da kuke yi don bayyana dukkanin wannan, wanda zanyi la'akari sosai da mahimmanci, bayyanawa, duk da haka akwai fassarar da kuka yi amfani da wannan ba zan iya fahimta ba saboda rashin fahimta. Ina da tambaya game da tebur mai zuwa wanda wani ya gabatar da ni. Kuna iya gaya mani tare da wannan bayanan da aka gabatar a kasa, wanda tsari ne wanda yake da shi kuma wanda aka yi amfani da shi (idan yana da). Godiya a gaba, Ina jiran.

    Longitude Latitude Gabas (X) Arewa (Y)
    -92.170660948 19.294503558 587135.5 2133622.5
    -92.170643520 19.294488976 587137.4 2133620.9
    -92.170620402 19.294469407 587139.8 2133618.8
    -92.170618372 19.294467695 587140.0 2133618.6
    -92.170614312 19.294464279 587140.5 2133618.2
    -92.170610252 19.294460862 587140.9 2133617.8
    -92.170597249 19.294449921 587142.3 2133616.6

  24. A ina zan iya sauke siffar da grid na bangarori masu amfani?

  25. Bari mu gani, sake bayani
    Wani mai canzawa kuka yi amfani dashi?

    Kuna nufin cewa yin gyare-gyare na baya ya ba ku damar zama daban?

  26. Duba, Na yi amfani da masu canzawa daga utm zuwa digiri kuma a cikin El Salvador masu daidaitawa suna da tsayi 89 ° da latitude 13° Ina amfani da zone 16 da arewacin hemisphere amma lokacin canza mita yana ba ni 89° da latitude 2° ba zai iya zama ba. abin da nake yi.

  27. Sannu, CONAGUA ta neme ni don "Shiri tare da ma'auni da iyakoki na dukiya a cikin haɗin gwiwar UTM" shin akwai wanda ya san wanda zai iya ba ni wannan sabis ɗin?

  28. Mafi kyawun POst, ci gaba da wannan hanyar sababbin hanyoyin koyar da waɗanda suke so su koyi waɗannan batutuwa.

  29. WANNAN KA WANNAN LITTAFI NA 10 YA YA KAUTA KUMA
    GRACIAS

  30. Abubuwan da aka kawo, wace raka'a ne? Ina aiki algebraically don sanin nisa tsakanin maki biyu kuma sakamakon yana a cikin mita?

  31. Ina tsammanin cewa kai tsaye a cikin AutoCAD ba zai yiwu ba. Wataƙila Civil3D yana da wani abu, amma yawanci dole ne ku canza su.

  32. Yaya zan iya canza canjin lat / lon zuwa UTM a daidai wannan ɗakin na Ina fatan za ku taimake ni cikin wannan godiya

  33. sosai duk abin da na riga na manta da komai yanzu don diyata ina zubar da kwakwalwar godiya.

  34. Eh matsala ce ta gama gari da rauni na tsarin UTM. Akwai zaɓuɓɓuka, amma sun dogara da dalilai da ake buƙata don su.

    Don dalilai na aiki, madadin shine motsa gabas na ƙarya, ma'ana cewa tsakiyar tsakiyar yankin yana motsawa. Ana ba da izinin wannan ta shirye-shiryen, tare da zaɓi don gyara tsarin tsinkaya.

    Wani zaɓi shine yin aiki tare da latitudes da longitudes a cikin wannan yanki, ko kuma fakitin da abin ya shafa a iyakar yankin. Bayan haka, don dalilai na bugawa, yana da kyau a ba da bayanan ta wannan hanya don kada a haifar da rudani.

  35. Abin sha'awa da mahimmanci a cikin batu, amma amsar ita ce: idan ina da wurin aunawa kuma wannan yana cikin yankuna biyu, yayin da na wakilci ƙididdiga na amfani da ita, idan na yi la'akari da guda ɗaya ko duka biyu?
    ko a wasu kalmomi, ta yaya zan wakilta wani wuri da aka auna a cikin SAN SANTAWA?

  36. To, ba zan iya fahimtar dukan abu ba, amma ya kamata ka duba yankin, saboda Zacatecas yana cikin yankunan 13 da 14.

    Idan ba ka yi daidai da wurin da kake tsammani ba, hanyarka kawai za a bincika shi ne tare da wanda ka ɗauki bayanai, saboda yana iya samun kuskuren karya wanda ya nuna cewa tsakiya na tsakiya na x = 500,000 yana da maye gurbin.

  37. cewa mai kyau cewa akwai wannan sararin samaniya don iya iya shakku, Na ɗauki digiri tare da haɗin gwiwar kuma wannan misali ne.

    shigar da daidaituwa na shirin shirin takardun shaida
    tare da wannan bayanan
    x= 636,130.00 y= 2,656,898.00
    kuma ina samun 24.01828298 -103.6614938

    Don haka a can muke, tambayar ita ce:

    lokacin da haɗin ginin shine x = 507258 y = 2658745
    idan muna cikin zacatecas kuma tare da halayen da aka ambata a baya sun aika ni zuwa wani jihohi kuma yana da dutse.
    an ɗauka cewa haɗin da suka shiga sune daga mãkirci, shine matsalar da ban sani ba irin nauyin gps ko tsarin da suka ɗauka, kamar yadda zan iya bincika nau'o'in nau'ukan da kuma halaye.

    na gode da hankalinku

  38. Na kasance mai ban sha'awa saboda ina son in gan ta mafi kyau a duniya.

  39. Aika mani wannan shirin shi ne faxias maras kyau

  40. godiya ga galvarezhn, shin kayi san kowane shirin, na yau da kullum ko irin wannan abin da nake nuna game da ƙungiyoyi biyu? Ina bukatan shi don aikace-aikace a autocad.

    gaisuwa

  41. Hello Ismael
    Don zana ta amfani da haɗin UTM a cikin yankuna waɗanda ke kewaye da shiyyoyi, ya zama dole a canza gabashin gabas da ke tsakiyar yankin, wannan saboda saboda an tsara tsarin haɗin UTM don ganin yankuna ... kuma wannan yana da rauni aƙalla a ƙarƙashin waɗancan sharuɗɗa.

    Wannan app ba don hakan ba ne

  42. Wannan shirin yana da amfani ga zane a autocad tsakanin bangarorin biyu? tun lokacin da ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun dabi'u waɗanda autocad ba su fahimta ba. Ina tsammanin cewa lokacin da shigar da haɗin gwargwadon ƙasa da nuna yankin, shirin ya sa ƙungiya ƙungiyoyi biyu? a cikin haɗin gudanarwa ta hanya

  43. impeccable, don haka za mu iya sanin inda za mu fara.
    Tsarin mahimmanci abu ɗaya ne kuma nau'i nau'in nau'i.
    Shirin taswirar ya kamata ya ambaci duka biyu, koyaushe.

  44. Gafarta dai Yorel, da wuya ka kasance tare da kowa, amma idan ka bayyana mana wanne ne daga cikin biyun da kake kokarin zama wawa za mu iya tura ka zuwa wasu shafukan yanar gizo da ke bayani a cikin wata hanyar wauta ... watakila matakin wannan shafin ba naka bane kuma mun fahimta

    wanne ne daga cikin biyun ... madubin ko waninsa ...

    kuma kada ka damu, Na fahimta ma'anar kalmar motsin

  45. Wannan haɗin kai yana da mahimmanci a gare ni saboda mun san inda muke

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