Sauya bayanan CAD zuwa GIS tare da ArcGIS Pro

Canza bayanan da aka gina tare da shirin CAD zuwa tsarin GIS abu ne na yau da kullun, musamman tunda ilimin injiniya kamar su safiyo, cadastre ko gini har yanzu suna amfani da fayilolin da aka gina a cikin shirye-shiryen komputa ta hanyar komputa (CAD), tare da dabarar gini mai ma'ana zuwa abubuwa amma ga layi, polygons, rukuni da alamun da ke cikin layuka daban-daban (yadudduka). Kodayake sababbin nau'ikan software na CAD suna da haɓaka tsarin daidaitaccen abu tare da ma'amala tare da bayanai na sararin samaniya, daidaito tsakanin waɗannan fannoni har yanzu yana buƙatar aiwatarwar canji.

Abin da ake sa ran za a samu: cire samfurin daga fayil ɗin CAD zuwa GIS, don yin nazarin yankin nan gaba, don wannan misali munyi amfani da fayil na CAD wanda ya ƙunshi bayanan fasalin gine-gine, bayanan ruwa, wato Rivers da sauran gine-ginen da aka gina.

Abin da ya kamata ka samu a ƙarshen tsari shine Layer na ƙasa, wani tafkin kogunan da wani nau'i na sifofi, tsarin farko na kowace lakabi ya bi yanayin asali.

Akwai bayanai da kayayyaki: wani fayil na CAD, a cikin wannan hali wani dwg na AutoCAD 2019.

Tsarin Matakai tare da ArcGIS Pro

Mataki na 1. Shigo da fayil CAD

Kamar yadda aka nuna a sama dole ne ku sami fayil .dwg, .dgn ko .dxf, (CAD format), an zaɓa daga shafin map da zabin Ƙara Data, a can aka bincika fayil ɗin da ya dace. Anan zai fara a wannan lokacin wahalar nuna bayanai ta sigar fayil, akwai fayil .dwg a ciki AutoCAD 2019, lokacin da aka shigar da Layer a cikin ArcGIS Pro, tsarin ya karanta layi na layi, amma a cikin siginan launi yana nuna cewa yadudduka ba su ƙunshi kowane mahaluži ba, kamar yadda za'a gani a cikin adadi na gaba.

Lokacin kallon fayil din asali, a cikin AutoCAD Civil3D ana iya ganin cewa yana da bayanai.

Kafin gaskantawa cewa fayil bata lalata ko ba shi da wani bayani, yana da muhimmanci a la'akari da karɓan kargin da ArcGIS Pro ya karɓa:

Don .dwg da .dxf

  • Karatu, amma ba a fitar ba: 12 da 13 version na AutoCAD
  • Daidaita karatun da fitarwa: Versions AutoCAD 2000 v15.0, 2002 v15.0, 2004 v16.0, 2005 v16.1, 2006 v16.2, 2007 v17.0, 2008 v17.1, 2009 v 17.2, 2010 v18.0, 2011 v18.1, 2012 v18.2, 2013 v19.0, 2014 v19.1, 2015 v 20.0, 2016 v20.1, 2017 v21.0 da 2018 v22.0.

Don .dgn

  • Karatu, amma ba a fitar ba: MicroStation 95 v5.x, MicroStation SE v5.x, MicroStation J v 7.x
  • Hanyar kai tsaye da fitarwa: MicroStation V8 v 8.x

Kamar yadda kake gani, a lokacin shirya wannan koyarwar, ArcGIS Pro har yanzu baya goyan bayan karatu da fitar da bayanai daga AutoCAD 2019, don haka babu alamun ƙungiyoyi a cikin ra'ayi, abin dariya shine ArcGIS Pro baya nuna kurakurai yayin bin layuka, kuma ba ta faɗakar da cewa fayil ɗin bai dace da sigar ba. Loda bayanin tare da tsarin CAD amma ba tare da bayanai ba.

Bayan gano wannan, ya zama dole don amfani TrueConverter don canza fayil ɗin dwg, a wannan yanayin mun yi shi zuwa version 2000.

Mataki na 2. Maida bayanai daga fayil ɗin CAD zuwa SHP

Za a gano matakan da kake son cirewa, idan an buƙatar dukkan bayanai na CAD, dole ne mu fitar da kowane nau'i a matsayin siffar, lokacin da aka zaba CAD, wata shafin ta bayyana. CAD kayan aiki, a cikin kayan aikin da zaka iya samun tsari Copy Features, wata ƙungiya ta buɗe nuna matakan shigarwa da fitarwa; shigarwa shine Layer da aka zaɓa, a cikin wannan shirin, kuma fitarwa zai iya zama fayil ɗin raba ko geodatabase hade da aikin, lokacin da ka tabbata an aiwatar da tsari sannan a kara da Layer a cikin ƙunshin abun ciki .shp.

Mataki na 3. Yi nazarin daidaitattun abubuwan da ba su cika ba

  • Har ila yau, akwai rata, wanda aka samo shi a cikin tsari na polyline lokacin da aka fitar da GIS (siffar). Yayinda siffar da aka samo ta yi amfani da tsari na asali, makirci da lagon a wannan yanayin, dole ne a canza su zuwa polygons, dangane da yanayin da kuma bukatun
  • Ga koguna, ana aiwatar da aikin yadda ya kamata, duk da haka, an gano cewa babban kogin da raginsa sun kasance da bangarori da yawa. Don shiga cikin su, zaɓi shafin Shirya, - kayan aiki ci, kuma tare da wannan ya haɗa da sassan da ke daidai da babban kogi, da kuma kowane ɓangare na masu ɗayanta.
  • Hakanan zaka iya ganin cewa a cikin Layer dauke da kogunan akwai layi wanda, saboda siffarsa da wuri, ba a cikin wannan rukunin ba, an cire ta, ta hanyar gyaran layin da aka riga ya ƙirƙiri.

Me yasa polylines da abubuwa suke bayyana waɗanda basu dace da lissafin jimloli ba? Manufa daga shirin CAD ne don tsaftace yadudduka abubuwan da basu dace ba, duk da haka, don dalilan wannan aikin an yi shi ta wannan hanyar. A matsayin misali, fayil ɗin tushe yana da toshe na 3D tare da wasu juyawa, yana zuwa daga fayil ɗin AutoCAD Recap, lokacin da aka wakilce shi a cikin ra'ayi na 2D ya zama polyline.

Idan ana duba tsoffin ƙamus ɗin daga fayil ɗin CAD:

Don cire samfurin polygons wanda aka samo daga CAD (1), zaka iya aiwatar da wannan tsari kamar yadda aka yi akai-akai a ArcMap: maɓallin dama a kan Layer - Data - Fitarwa Siffofin,  yana nuna hanya mai fita kuma siffar polygon za ta bayyana a cikin ƙunshiyar ku.

A wannan yanayin, a Layer sanya na polygons wanda asali yana cikin CAD fayil m zuwa Tsarin, duk da haka, a lokacin da polylines an sake nazari a cikin na asali CAD bace biyu polygons (2):

A yayin da aka sani cewa sunaye daga fayil ɗin CAD:

A CAD Layer shafin, kayan aiki Feature zuwa Polygon, ana amfani da wannan kayan aiki idan akwai tabbacin bayanan da ke fitowa daga CAD, muna buƙatar su a cikin tsarin polygon. Lokacin aiwatar da tsari, an bude panel, inda ya buƙaci ya bayyana wane ko wane layi ne ko layi don a canza.

  • An duba akwati idan kana so ka adana halaye na CAD, ArcGIS Pro ya ajiye wasu filayen da wani sifa na musamman don wannan irin bayanai.
  • Idan abokai suna hade da annotations ko lakabi na CAD, waɗannan alamu za a iya kiyayewa a siffar da za'a tsara.

A wannan yanayin, cewa fayil ɗin CAD shine "tofalogical crap", Tare da tsarin da aka rigaya zai yiwu a cire wani polygon guda, tun da kayan aiki ba ya gane wani tsari ba saboda yana da bude, wato, ba duka polygon ba ne. saboda wannan layin da aka gina tare da polygons an gyara kuma an halicci siffar.

Cikin yanayin lagon, zaka iya zaɓar polylines wanda ya sa shi kuma yi amfani da kayan aiki don samar da siffar da tsarin polygon.

Abin da ya faru da wannan kayan aiki, shine cewa dole ne ka kasance cikakkiyar kariya daga abin da waɗannan abubuwa suke polygons; in ba haka ba, zai samar da wani layi tare da kurakuran topology, tun lokacin da mahaɗan keɓaɓɓiyar keyi da juna, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin misalin lokacin ƙoƙarin juyawa dukkan abubuwan CAD tare da wannan kayan aiki:

 

Sarrafawa, a cikin sassan Makaho na atomatik

Sakamakon karshe

Bayan yin tafiyar matakai daidai da kowane lakabi za mu sami wadannan:

Yadda ake yin mãkirci a tsarin polygon

Koguna a cikin tsari na polyline

Gina a cikin tsarin polygons

Lagon a cikin tsarin polygon.

Yanzu zamu iya aiki da aiwatar da binciken da ake buƙata, la'akari da mahimmancin asalin bayanan, duka tsarinsa da daidaiton yanayinsu. Zazzage shi nan sakamakon fitarwa.

An koya wannan darasi daga darasi na 13 na Easy ArcGIS Pro hanya, wanda ya hada da bidiyo da bayani mataki-mataki. A hanya akwai a cikin Turanci y en Español.

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