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Menene isolines - iri da aikace-aikace

Layi kwane-kwane layin da ya dace da abubuwan daidai. A cikin zane-zanen zane, isolines sun taru don nuna daidaitattun tsayi a sama da daidaitaccen matakin, kamar matsakaicin matsakaicin teku. Taswirar katako jagora ce don wakiltar manyan abubuwan tarihin yanki ta amfani da layi. Ana amfani dashi akai-akai don nuna girman, sha'awa da zurfin kwaruruka da tuddai. Sarari tsakanin kwastomomi biyu zuwa baya akan taswira ana kiransa da tsaka-tsakin yanayi yana nuna bambanci a saman.

Tare da ArcGIS zaka iya koyon yin amfani da isolines mafi kyau, don haka taswira na iya sadarwa akan yanayin girma uku na kowane yanki akan taswirar abubuwa biyu. Ta hanyar fahimtar taswirar isolines ko contours, abokin ciniki na iya fassara gangararar saman. Ko zurfin ko girman yanki, yanki zai iya magana game da yanayin yanki. Sarari tsakanin isolines guda biyu tare da layin yana bawa abokin ciniki mahimman bayanai.

Layukan na iya lanƙwasa, madaidaiciya, ko haɗuwa biyu waɗanda ba sa ketare juna. Matsakaicin tsayin da aka nuna ta isolines gabaɗaya shine matsakaicin tsayin teku. Matsakaicin sararin samaniya tsakanin isolines yana nuna karkatar saman da ake nazarin kuma ana kiransa "wuri". A cikin yanayin cewa an baje isolines da ƙarfi, za su nuna gangaren da ba ta dace ba. A gefe guda, idan isolines suna da nisa sosai, ana kiran shi gangara mai laushi. Ana nuna magudanan ruwa, hanyoyin ruwa a cikin kwari a matsayin "v" ko "u" akan taswirar lanƙwasa.

Sau da yawa ana ba wa masu lanƙwasa sunaye tare da prefix "iso" wanda ke nufin "daidai" a cikin Hellenanci, bisa ga nau'in canjin da ake taswira. Ana iya maye gurbin prefix "iso" tare da "isallo" wanda ke ƙayyade cewa layin tsari yana haɗuwa inda wani madaidaicin da aka ba da ya canza a daidai adadin akan wani lokaci. Duk da cewa ana amfani da kalmar lanƙwasa gabaɗaya, ana yawan amfani da wasu sunaye a fannin yanayin yanayi, inda akwai yuwuwar yin amfani da taswirori da yawa tare da abubuwa da yawa a wani lokaci. Hakazalika, wuraren da ba su dace ba da kuma layin kwane-kwane suna nuna gangara iri ɗaya.

Tarihin isolines

An dade ana amfani da layukan da ke hade da maki daidai gwargwado duk da cewa an san su da sunaye daban-daban. An yi rikodin amfani da layin kwane-kwane na farko don nuna zurfin hanyar ruwa ta Spaarne kusa da Haarlem ta wani ɗan ƙasar Holland mai suna Pieter Bruinsz a cikin 1584. Isolines wanda ke nuna zurfin zurfi yanzu ana kiransa "isobats." A cikin shekarun 1700, an yi amfani da layukan akan zane-zane da taswirori don zayyana zurfin da girman jikunan ruwa da wurare. Edmond Halley a cikin 1701 ya yi amfani da layin kwane-kwane na isogonal tare da mafi kyawun iri. Nicholas Cruquius ya yi amfani da isobaths tare da tazara daidai da 1 fathom don fahimta da kuma zana gado na hanyar ruwa ta Merwede a shekara ta 1727, yayin da Philippe Buache ya yi amfani da tsaka-tsakin lokaci na fathoms 10 don tashar Turanci a shekara ta 1737. A 1746 Domenico Vandelli ya yi amfani da kwane-kwane. Layukan da za a iya bayyana saman, zana jagorar Duchy na Modena da Reggio. A cikin 1774 ya jagoranci gwajin Schiehallion don ƙididdige matsakaicin kauri na Duniya. An yi amfani da ra'ayin isolines don bincika gangaren duwatsu a matsayin gwaji. Tun daga nan, amfani da isolines don zane-zane ya zama dabarun gama gari. JL Dupain-Treil yayi amfani da wannan dabara a cikin 1791 don jagora zuwa Faransa kuma a cikin 1801 Haxo yayi amfani da ita don ayyukansa a Rocca d'Aufo. Tun daga wannan lokacin, ana yawan amfani da isolines don yin taswira da aikace-aikace daban-daban.

A cikin 1889 Francis Galton ya ba da shawarar kalmar "isogram" a matsayin tushen hangen nesa don layukan da ke nuna daidaito ko kwatankwaci a cikin abubuwan da suka dace ko na ƙididdiga. Kalmomin "isogon", "isoline" da "isarhythm" ana amfani da su gabaɗaya don wakiltar isolines. Kalmar "isoclines" tana nufin layin da ke samun mayar da hankali tare da gangara daidai.

Iri da aikace-aikacen isolines

An yi amfani da Isolines sosai a cikin taswira da wakilci na hoto da hoto mai auna. Za'a iya zana layin kwantarwa azaman tsari ko azaman bayanin martaba. Faifan lebur shine wakilcin jagora, saboda mai kallo zai iya ganin ta daga sama. Bayanin bayanin martaba kullun siga ne wanda aka sanya a tsaye. Misali, shimfidar wuraren wani yanki za a iya tsara shi azaman tsari ko tsari na layi, yayin da za a iya ganin gurɓataccen iska a yankin a matsayin bayanin martaba.

Idan ka sami gangara mai zurfi a cikin jagorar, za ka ga cewa isolines sun taru a cikin jigon sifofin "mai ɗaukar kaya". Don wannan yanayin, layin kwane-kwane na ƙarshe wani lokaci yana da alamun kaska da ke nuna ƙasa kaɗan. Hakanan ana nuna hazo ta layin kwane-kwane da ke kusa da juna kuma, a kusan babu wani yanayi, suna tuntuɓar juna ko kuma an daidaita su.

Ana amfani da layin baƙin ciki a fannoni daban-daban, don nuna abubuwa da yawa game da wurin. A kowane hali, sharuɗɗan amfani da suna don isolines na iya canzawa tare da nau'in bayanan da ake magana da su.

 Lafiyar Qasa:  Ana amfani da ƙoshin ƙarfe don samar da layi waɗanda ke nuna m wanda ba za'a iya ƙididdige su a lokaci ɗaya ba, duk da haka, ɓangaren bayanai ne da aka tattara a babban yanki, alal misali, kauri na yawan jama'a.

Haka kuma, a cikin yanayin Isoflor, ana amfani da isoplette don danganta gundumomi tare da nau'ikan kamannin kwayoyin halitta, waɗanda ke nuna misalai na sufuri da fasalin nau'in dabbobi.

Ilimin muhalli: Akwai amfani daban-daban na isolines a cikin ilimin kimiyyar muhalli. Taswirar kazamar balaguro suna da mahimmanci don nunawa ga wuraren da ke da ƙarara da ƙananan matakan gurbatawa, matakan da ke ba da damar yiwuwar gurɓatar yanayi a cikin yankin.

Ana amfani da samfuran wuta don nuna hazo na lalacewa, yayin da ana amfani da kebelas don nuna matakan gurɓataccen taro a yankin.

Anyi amfani da manufar layin kwano a cikin dasa tsiro da fuskoki, wanda aka sani da rage raguwar ƙasa zuwa wani mataki na ban mamaki a yankuna, a gefen hanyoyin ruwan ko wasu jikin na ruwa

Sanin ilimin zamantakewa: Ana amfani da layin contour akai-akai a cikin zamantakewar jama'a, don nuna nau'ikan ko don nuna danganta bincike na mai canji a takamaiman yankin. Sunan layin tsari ya canza tare da nau'in bayanan bayanan da ke aiki da shi. Misali, a fannin tattalin arziki, ana amfani da isolines don wakiltar manyan abubuwan da zasu iya canzawa akan wani yanki, kwatankwacin isodapane wanda yayi magana akan farashin lokacin motsi, isotim yana nufin tsadar sufuri daga asalin albarkatun kasa, watau Ba a bayyana maganganu game da haɓaka adadin ƙarni na bayanan zaɓin amfani

Kididdiga: A cikin gwaje-gwajen da za'a iya gwadawa, ana amfani da isolines don samun hanyoyi tare da ƙididdigar lokacin farin ciki, wanda ake kira layin isodensity ko isodensanes.

Meteorology: Isolines suna da babban amfani a cikin meteorology. Bayanin da aka samo daga tashoshin canjin yanayin zafi da tauraron ɗan adam, yana taimakawa wajen yin taswirar tasoshin meteorological, waɗanda ke nuna yanayin yanayi kamar hazo, ƙarfi na huhu a cikin wani lokaci. Ana amfani da issotherms da isobars a yawancin shirye-shiryen murfin don nuna nau'ikan ma'aunin zafi wanda ke tasiri yanayin yanayin yanayin.

Nazarin zazzabi: Wani nau'in isoline ne wanda ke haɗa maki daidai da yanayin zafi, wanda ake kira isotherms da yankuna waɗanda ke hade da daidaitaccen hasken rana wanda ake kira isohel. Isolines, daidai yake da matsakaicin zazzabi na shekara ana kiranta da isogeotherms kuma yankuna da ke da alaƙa da matsakaicin lokacin hunturu ko kuma ana kiranta isochemicals, yayin da matsakaicin zafin zafin rani ana kiransa baƙi.

Nazarin iska; A cikin meteorology, layin kwano wanda ya haɗu da bayanin saurin iska ana kiransa isotach. Tsarin iska yana nuna isasshen iska

Ruwan sama da zafi: Ana amfani da sharuɗɗa da yawa don suna isolines waɗanda ke nuna maki ko wuraren da ruwan sama ke ciki da laka.

  • Isoyet ko Isoyeta: nuna ruwan sama na gida
  • Isochalaz: su ne layin da ke nuna yankuna tare da maimaita yanayin tsawa.
  • Isobront: Waɗannan jagororin ne waɗanda ke nuna wuraren da suka cimma nasarar guguwar a lokaci guda.
  • Isoneph show girgije yada
  • Isohume: layi ne wanda ya haɗu da yankuna tare da daidaitawa ta yau da kullun
  • Samurai: Yana nuna yankuna masu daɗin ma'adinan ƙasa ko ƙaruwa.
  • Isopectic: yana nuna wurare tare da kwanakin rarrabe kankara, yayin da isotac yana nufin ranakun lalacewa.

Barometric matsa lamba: A cikin meteorology, binciken matsin lamba yana da mahimmanci don tsinkayen ƙirar yanayi a nan gaba. Yawan nauyin barometric yana raguwa zuwa matakin teku lokacin da aka nuna shi akan layi. An raba hanya shine layin da zai haɗu da gundumomi tare da nauyin yanayin yanayi koyaushe. Isoallobars jagora ne tare da canjin nauyi na wani lokaci na musamman. Makalobars, saboda haka, za'a iya ware shi cikin ketoallobars da anallobars, wanda ke nuna karuwar karuwar canjin nauyi daban.

Thermodynamics da injiniya: Kodayake waɗannan fannoni na hankali lokaci-lokaci sun haɗa da layin jagora, suna gano amfanin su a cikin wakilcin hoto na zane da zane-zane, ɓangare na nau'ikan isolines na yau da kullun da ake amfani dasu a waɗannan fannoni na binciken sune:

  • Isochor wakiltar kullun darajar ƙimar
  • Isoclines ana amfani dasu cikin yanayi dabam
  • Isodose yana nufin riƙe da daidai kashi na radiation
  • Isophote haske ne na yau da kullun

Magnetism: layin kwane-kwane yana da matukar amfani wajan yin la’akari da filin duniyar kyau. Taimako a cikin binciken abubuwan jan hankali da kuma rabewar magnetic.

Layi na Isogonic ko isogonic contour suna nuna layin kwaskwarimar da kullun. Layin da ke nuna ragin raguwa ana kiransa layin Agonic. Isoline wanda ya kawo dukkan hanyoyin fuskantar juna, tare da ingantaccen iko mai kyau ana kiransu layi mai aiki. Layin keɓaɓɓu yana haɗuwa da dukkan saiti na yanki tare da ruwa mai ƙyalƙyali daidai, yayin da layin aclinic yana haɓaka duka bangarorin tare da iskar ruwa mai ƙyalli. Hanyar da ba ta dace ba tana ɗaukar kowane ɗayan hanyoyin tare da daidaitattun nau'ikan raguwa na shekara-shekara.

 Karatun kasa: Mafi kyawun sananniyar amfani da isolines - contours, don wakilcin girma da zurfin yanki ne. Ana amfani da waɗannan layin a cikin taswirar hoto don nuna tsayin daka, da kuma aikin wanka don nuna zurfin. Ana amfani da waɗannan taswira ɗaya ko na hoto na wanka don nuna ƙaramin yanki ko ga yankuna kamar manyan filayen ƙasa. Matsakaicin jerin tsakanin layin rubutu, da ake kira tsaka-tsaki yana nuna haɓaka ko zurfi tsakanin su biyun.

Lokacin magana game da yanki mai layin kwane-kwane, layin da ke kusa suna nuna gangara ko babban kusurwa, yayin da kwane-kwane mai nisa suna magana akan gangara mara zurfi. Rufaffiyar da'irori a ciki suna nuna ƙarfi, yayin da waje yana nuna gangara ƙasa. Da'irar mafi zurfi akan taswirar kwane-kwane yana nuna inda yankin zai iya samun damuwa ko ramuka, inda ake nuna layin da ake kira "hachures" daga cikin da'irar.

Labarin kasa da labarin kasa: Ana amfani da taswirar ma'amala a cikin bincike na ɗab'in ɗab'in ɗabi'a, ɓangarorin jiki da na kuɗi waɗanda aka nuna a saman duniya. Isopach sune layin kwane-kwane wanda ya samo asali mai mahimmanci tare da daidaitaccen kauri na rakarorin ƙasa.

Kari akan haka, a cikin tsarin tarihin, sassan abinci na ruwa suna daidai da layin kwano da ake kira isopicnas, kuma isohalins suna haɗu da maki daidai da salinity ruwan. Isobathytherms yana mai da hankali kan yanayin zafi daidai a teku.

Lantarki: electrostatics a sararin samaniya galibi ana nuna shi tare da keɓaɓɓen taswira. Hanyar da ke shiga cikin maki tare da karfin wutar lantarki ana kiranta shi da layi ko kadaici.

Halin alamun layin kwano a cikin taswira

Taswirar kwango ba wai kawai wakilci bane na hawan kai ba, ko jagorar hawan ko zurfin yankuna, amma manyan abubuwan isolines suna ba da damar fahimtar kyakkyawar yanayin wuraren da aka tsara. Ga wasu karin bayanai wadanda akasari ake amfani dasu a taswira:

  • Irin layi: Ana iya dotted, mai ƙarfi ko gudu. Ana yin amfani da layin tika ko gudu lokacin da akwai bayani akan kwano mai tushe wanda layin zai iya nunawa.
  • Kauri layin: Ya danganta yadda aka jawo layin ko ƙaƙƙarfan layin. Kwananan taswira ana ɗaukar su tare da layi mai kauri dabam dabam don nuna halaye ko lambobi daban-daban a iyakar tudun yankin.
  • Launi layin: Wannan nau'in murda kwanon shading yana canzawa cikin jagora don gane shi daga kwano mai tushe. Hakanan ana amfani da shayin layi azaman madadin halayen ƙira.
  • Lambar lambobi: Yana da mahimmanci a duk taswirar katako. Yawancin lokaci ana yin sa kusa da layin kwano ko na iya bayyana a cikin kwanewar mai jagora. Valueimar lamba tana taimakawa wajen rarrabe nau'in gangara.

Kayan Taswirar Taswira

Taswirar takarda ta al'ada ba ita ce hanyar da za a iya tsara isolines ko conours ba. Duk da cewa suna da mahimmanci, tare da ci gaba a cikin kerawa, taswirar yanzu suna cikin ingantaccen tsari. Akwai kayan kida da yawa, aikace-aikace masu yawa da kuma shirye-shirye masu sauƙi don taimakawa tare da wannan. Wadannan taswirar zasuyi zama daidai, cikin sauri don yin, za'a iya canza su yadda ya kamata kuma zaka iya tura su ga abokan aikin ka da abokan aiki! Na gaba, ana nuna wani ɓangaren waɗannan kayan aikin tare da taƙaitaccen bayanin

Google Maps

Google Maps mai ceton rai ne a duniya. Ana amfani da shi don bincika birnin, da kuma wasu 'yan wasu dalilai daban-daban. Yana da "ra'ayoyi" da yawa da ake iya samun dama, alal misali: zirga-zirga, tauraron dan adam, yanayin yanayi, hanya, da sauransu. Kunna Layer "Landscape" daga menu na zaɓuɓɓuka zai ba ku yanayin yanayin yanayi (tare da layin kwane-kwane).

Gaia, ArcGIS, Backcountry Navigator (Aikace-aikacen aikace-aikacen)

Kamar sauran aikace-aikacen šaukuwa da yawa don duka Android da iOS, abokan ciniki na iPhone zasu iya amfani da Gaia GPS. Yana ba abokan ciniki taswirar tashoshi tare da nau'ikan daban-daban. Wadannan aikace-aikacen na iya zama kyauta ko biya gwargwadon iyawar da aka sanar. Ba'a amfani da aikace-aikacen Hanyoyi kawai don samun bayanan topographic ba, har ma suna da amfani sosai. Aikace-aikacen ArcGIS da aikace-aikacen ESRI daban-daban za'a iya amfani dasu kawai don dalilai na taswira.

Caltopo

Ba za ku iya yin wasa da duk iyawa akan wayoyin hannu ba, kuma wannan shine wuraren wuraren aiki da PC sune manyan jarumawa. Akwai matakan kan layi da daidaitawar shirye-shirye don taimaka muku gama aikinku na gaba. Captopo kayan aikin jagoranci ne wanda yake ba ku damar buga kwastomomin adanannoni. Bugu da kari, yana baka damar turawa / matsar dasu zuwa na'urar GPS ko wayoyin salula. Bugu da kari, yana tallafawa kirkirar abubuwa ko taswira tare da ba abokan ciniki daban.

Mytopo

Ana iya ganinta azaman mai ba da tallafi. Har zuwa wani abu kamar Caltopo (wanda aka ambata a sama), duk da haka, yana mai da hankali kan Kanada da Amurka (munyi imani da gaske cewa zasu haɗu da ƙasashe daban-daban!). Suna ba da cikakkun taswirar al'ada, gami da taswirar jama'a, hotunan tauraron dan adam da taswirar bangon fili na kowane yanki na Amurka. UU. Kyakkyawan taswira mai inganci sosai, wanda zaku iya kallo akan layi ba tare da tsada ba ko aika su azaman matakin farko na ƙaramin farashi.

Kuna iya rajistar ArcGIS Training Live on Edunbox tare da tallafin 24 / 7 da damar rayuwa.


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Golgi Alvarez

Marubuci, mai bincike, kwararre a cikin Samfuran Gudanar da Ƙasa. Ya halarci Conceptualization da aiwatar da model kamar: National System of Property Administration SINAP a Honduras, Model na Management of hadin gwiwa Municipalities a Honduras, Integrated Model na Cadastre Management - Registry a Nicaragua, System of Administration na Territory SAT a Colombia. . Editan shafin ilimin Geofumadas tun daga 2007 kuma mahaliccin Kwalejin AulaGEO wanda ya haɗa da darussa sama da 100 akan GIS - CAD - BIM - batutuwan Twins na Dijital.

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