Menene isolines - iri da aikace-aikace

Layi kwane-kwane layin da ya dace da abubuwan daidai. A cikin zane-zanen zane, isolines sun taru don nuna daidaitattun tsayi a sama da daidaitaccen matakin, kamar matsakaicin matsakaicin teku. Taswirar katako jagora ce don wakiltar manyan abubuwan tarihin yanki ta amfani da layi. Ana amfani dashi akai-akai don nuna girman, sha'awa da zurfin kwaruruka da tuddai. Sarari tsakanin kwastomomi biyu zuwa baya akan taswira ana kiransa da tsaka-tsakin yanayi yana nuna bambanci a saman.

Tare da ArcGIS zaka iya koyon yin amfani da isolines mafi kyau, don haka taswira na iya sadarwa akan yanayin girma uku na kowane yanki akan taswirar abubuwa biyu. Ta hanyar fahimtar taswirar isolines ko contours, abokin ciniki na iya fassara gangararar saman. Ko zurfin ko girman yanki, yanki zai iya magana game da yanayin yanki. Sarari tsakanin isolines guda biyu tare da layin yana bawa abokin ciniki mahimman bayanai.

Lines na iya lanƙwasa, madaidaiciya ko haɗuwa duka biyu waɗanda ba sa haye juna. Maganar tsayin daka da isolines ya nuna, shine matsakaiciyar tsawo na teku. Matsayi mai gudana tsakanin isolines yana nuna karkatarwar farfajiya a ƙarƙashin bincike kuma ana kiranta "tazara". Idan aka tarwatsa isolines da tabbaci, za su nuna karkatacciyar sha'awa. A gefe guda, idan aka nuna isolines nesa, akwai magana game da raɗaɗin m. Koguna, hanyoyin ruwa a cikin kwarin ana nuna su azaman "v" ko "u" akan taswirar masu ɓoye.

Yawancin lokaci ana bayar da sunaye tare da prefix "iso" wanda ke nufin "daidai" a cikin Hellenanci, gwargwadon nau'in m da aka tsara. Za a iya sanya prefix «iso» tare da «isallo» wanda ke kayyade cewa hanyar layi ta shiga inda canje-canje masu canji ke faruwa a irin wannan gudu a cikin wani lokaci na lokaci. Duk da cewa kalmar gabaɗaya ana amfani da ita gabaɗaya, ana amfani da wasu sunaye sau da yawa a cikin meteorology, inda akwai yuwuwar sanannu na amfani da taswirar taswira tare da dalilai da yawa a kowane lokaci. Hakanan, wurare daban-daban da kullun rabe-rabe suna nuna sha'awa iri ɗaya.

Tarihin isolines

Amfani da layin da ya haɗu da maki daidai gwargwado, ya kasance na dogon lokaci duk da cewa sun san juna da suna daban. An yi amfani da rakodin farko na layin kwano don nuna zurfin hanyar ruwan Spaarne da ke kusa da Haarlem ta wani Bajamushe mai suna Pieter Bruinsz a shekara ta 1584. Isolines wanda ke nufin zurfin dindindin a halin yanzu an sani da "isobats." A duk shekarun da suka gabata na 1700, ana amfani da layin cikin zane-zane da taswira don tantance zurfafa da girman girman jikin ruwa da yankuna. Edmond Halley a cikin 1701 sun yi amfani da layin kwantena na isogonic tare da nau'ikan launuka masu kyan gani. Nicholas Cruquius ya yi amfani da isobatas tare da matsakaici daidai da 1 fathom don fahimta da zana gadon Merwede a cikin shekara ta 1727, yayin da Philippe Buache ya yi amfani da tsaka-tsakin lokaci na 10 fathoms don Turanci Turanci a cikin 1737 shekara. A cikin 1746 Domenico Vandelli ya yi amfani da contours don bayyana yanayin ƙasa, yana zana jagorar Duchy na Modena da Reggio. A cikin 1774 ya jagoranci gwajin Schiehallion don daidaita matsakaicin matsakaicin duniya. Anyi amfani da ra'ayin isolines don bincika gangarawar tsaunuka a matsayin shaida. Daga can, amfani da isolines don zana taswira ya zama dabarar gama gari. An yi amfani da wannan dabarar a cikin 1791 ta JL Dupain-Treil don jagora daga Faransa kuma a cikin 1801 Haxo sun yi amfani da shi don kamfanonin kamfanonin su na Rocca d'Aufo. Daga wannan lokacin, anyi amfani da isolines na gaba ɗaya don taswira da aikace-aikace daban-daban.

A cikin 1889 Francis Galton ya gabatar da furcin "isogram" a matsayin tushen hangen nesa don layin da ke nuna daidaituwa ko daidaituwa a cikin mahimman bayanai ko kuma adadi. Kalmomin "isogon", "isoline" da "isarithm" ana amfani dasu gaba ɗaya don wakilcin isolines. Kalmar "isoclins" tana nufin layin da ke samun mayar da hankali tare da daidaituwa daidai.

Iri da aikace-aikacen isolines

An yi amfani da Isolines sosai a cikin taswira da wakilci na hoto da hoto mai auna. Za'a iya zana layin kwantarwa azaman tsari ko azaman bayanin martaba. Faifan lebur shine wakilcin jagora, saboda mai kallo zai iya ganin ta daga sama. Bayanin bayanin martaba kullun siga ne wanda aka sanya a tsaye. Misali, shimfidar wuraren wani yanki za a iya tsara shi azaman tsari ko tsari na layi, yayin da za a iya ganin gurɓataccen iska a yankin a matsayin bayanin martaba.

Idan kun sami maɓalli mai tsayi a cikin jagorar, zaku ga cewa isolines ɗin suna haɗuwa da kwano mai fasalin "jigilar kaya". Don wannan yanayin, layin kwano na ƙarshe wani lokacin yana da alamun karatun digiri wanda ke nuna ƙarancin ƙasa. Hakanan ana nuna haɓaka ta hanyar kwanciyar hankali kusa da juna kuma, kusan babu matsala, suna hulɗa da juna ko kuma suna da tabbatuwa.

Ana amfani da layin baƙin ciki a fannoni daban-daban, don nuna abubuwa da yawa game da wurin. A kowane hali, sharuɗɗan amfani da suna don isolines na iya canzawa tare da nau'in bayanan da ake magana da su.

Lafiyar Qasa: Ana amfani da ƙoshin ƙarfe don samar da layi waɗanda ke nuna m wanda ba za'a iya ƙididdige su a lokaci ɗaya ba, duk da haka, ɓangaren bayanai ne da aka tattara a babban yanki, alal misali, kauri na yawan jama'a.

Haka kuma, a cikin yanayin Isoflor, ana amfani da isoplette don danganta gundumomi tare da nau'ikan kamannin kwayoyin halitta, waɗanda ke nuna misalai na sufuri da fasalin nau'in dabbobi.

Ilimin muhalli: Akwai amfani daban-daban na isolines a cikin ilimin kimiyyar muhalli. Taswirar kazamar balaguro suna da mahimmanci don nunawa ga wuraren da ke da ƙarara da ƙananan matakan gurbatawa, matakan da ke ba da damar yiwuwar gurɓatar yanayi a cikin yankin.

Ana amfani da samfuran wuta don nuna hazo na lalacewa, yayin da ana amfani da kebelas don nuna matakan gurɓataccen taro a yankin.

Anyi amfani da manufar layin kwano a cikin dasa tsiro da fuskoki, wanda aka sani da rage raguwar ƙasa zuwa wani mataki na ban mamaki a yankuna, a gefen hanyoyin ruwan ko wasu jikin na ruwa

Sanin ilimin zamantakewa: Ana amfani da layin contour akai-akai a cikin zamantakewar jama'a, don nuna nau'ikan ko don nuna danganta bincike na mai canji a takamaiman yankin. Sunan layin tsari ya canza tare da nau'in bayanan bayanan da ke aiki da shi. Misali, a fannin tattalin arziki, ana amfani da isolines don wakiltar manyan abubuwan da zasu iya canzawa akan wani yanki, kwatankwacin isodapane wanda yayi magana akan farashin lokacin motsi, isotim yana nufin tsadar sufuri daga asalin albarkatun kasa, watau Ba a bayyana maganganu game da haɓaka adadin ƙarni na bayanan zaɓin amfani

Kididdiga: A cikin gwaje-gwajen da za'a iya gwadawa, ana amfani da isolines don samun hanyoyi tare da ƙididdigar lokacin farin ciki, wanda ake kira layin isodensity ko isodensanes.

Meteorology: Isolines suna da babban amfani a cikin meteorology. Bayanin da aka samo daga tashoshin canjin yanayin zafi da tauraron ɗan adam, yana taimakawa wajen yin taswirar tasoshin meteorological, waɗanda ke nuna yanayin yanayi kamar hazo, ƙarfi na huhu a cikin wani lokaci. Ana amfani da issotherms da isobars a yawancin shirye-shiryen murfin don nuna nau'ikan ma'aunin zafi wanda ke tasiri yanayin yanayin yanayin.

Nazarin zazzabi: Wani nau'in isoline ne wanda ke haɗa maki daidai da yanayin zafi, wanda ake kira isotherms da yankuna waɗanda ke hade da daidaitaccen hasken rana wanda ake kira isohel. Isolines, daidai yake da matsakaicin zazzabi na shekara ana kiranta da isogeotherms kuma yankuna da ke da alaƙa da matsakaicin lokacin hunturu ko kuma ana kiranta isochemicals, yayin da matsakaicin zafin zafin rani ana kiransa baƙi.

Nazarin iska; A cikin meteorology, layin kwano wanda ya haɗu da bayanin saurin iska ana kiransa isotach. Tsarin iska yana nuna isasshen iska

Ruwan sama da zafi: Ana amfani da sharuɗɗa da yawa don suna isolines waɗanda ke nuna maki ko wuraren da ruwan sama ke ciki da laka.

  • Isoyet ko Isoyeta: nuna ruwan sama na gida
  • Isochalaz: su ne layin da ke nuna yankuna tare da maimaita yanayin tsawa.
  • Isobront: Waɗannan jagororin ne waɗanda ke nuna wuraren da suka cimma nasarar guguwar a lokaci guda.
  • Isoneph show girgije yada
  • Isohume: layi ne wanda ya haɗu da yankuna tare da daidaitawa ta yau da kullun
  • Samurai: Yana nuna yankuna masu daɗin ma'adinan ƙasa ko ƙaruwa.
  • Isopectic: yana nuna wurare tare da kwanakin rarrabe kankara, yayin da isotac yana nufin ranakun lalacewa.

Barometric matsa lamba: A cikin meteorology, binciken matsin lamba yana da mahimmanci don tsinkayen ƙirar yanayi a nan gaba. Yawan nauyin barometric yana raguwa zuwa matakin teku lokacin da aka nuna shi akan layi. An raba hanya shine layin da zai haɗu da gundumomi tare da nauyin yanayin yanayi koyaushe. Isoallobars jagora ne tare da canjin nauyi na wani lokaci na musamman. Makalobars, saboda haka, za'a iya ware shi cikin ketoallobars da anallobars, wanda ke nuna karuwar karuwar canjin nauyi daban.

Thermodynamics da injiniya: Kodayake waɗannan fannoni na hankali lokaci-lokaci sun haɗa da layin jagora, suna gano amfanin su a cikin wakilcin hoto na zane da zane-zane, ɓangare na nau'ikan isolines na yau da kullun da ake amfani dasu a waɗannan fannoni na binciken sune:

  • Isochor wakiltar kullun darajar ƙimar
  • Isoclines ana amfani dasu cikin yanayi dabam
  • Isodose yana nufin riƙe da daidai kashi na radiation
  • Isophote haske ne na yau da kullun

Magnetism: layin kwane-kwane yana da matukar amfani wajan yin la’akari da filin duniyar kyau. Taimako a cikin binciken abubuwan jan hankali da kuma rabewar magnetic.

Layi na Isogonic ko isogonic contour suna nuna layin kwaskwarimar da kullun. Layin da ke nuna ragin raguwa ana kiransa layin Agonic. Isoline wanda ya kawo dukkan hanyoyin fuskantar juna, tare da ingantaccen iko mai kyau ana kiransu layi mai aiki. Layin keɓaɓɓu yana haɗuwa da dukkan saiti na yanki tare da ruwa mai ƙyalƙyali daidai, yayin da layin aclinic yana haɓaka duka bangarorin tare da iskar ruwa mai ƙyalli. Hanyar da ba ta dace ba tana ɗaukar kowane ɗayan hanyoyin tare da daidaitattun nau'ikan raguwa na shekara-shekara.

Karatun kasa: Mafi kyawun sananniyar amfani da isolines - contours, don wakilcin girma da zurfin yanki ne. Ana amfani da waɗannan layin a cikin taswirar hoto don nuna tsayin daka, da kuma aikin wanka don nuna zurfin. Ana amfani da waɗannan taswira ɗaya ko na hoto na wanka don nuna ƙaramin yanki ko ga yankuna kamar manyan filayen ƙasa. Matsakaicin jerin tsakanin layin rubutu, da ake kira tsaka-tsaki yana nuna haɓaka ko zurfi tsakanin su biyun.

Lokacin da ake magana game da ƙasa mai layi tare da layin rubutu, layin da ke kusa suna nuna babban fifiko ko kusurwa, yayin da waɗanda suke cikin nisa suna magana game da karkatawar yanayin rashin ƙarfi. An rufe da'irori a ciki yana nuna ƙarfi, yayin da waje yana nuna gangarawa. Kewaya mai zurfi akan taswirar yanki tana nuna cewa yankin na iya samun baƙin ciki ko murfi, a wannan lokacin ana nuna layin da ake kira "hachures" daga cikin da'irar.

Labarin kasa da labarin kasa: Ana amfani da taswirar ma'amala a cikin bincike na ɗab'in ɗab'in ɗabi'a, ɓangarorin jiki da na kuɗi waɗanda aka nuna a saman duniya. Isopach sune layin kwane-kwane wanda ya samo asali mai mahimmanci tare da daidaitaccen kauri na rakarorin ƙasa.

Kari akan haka, a cikin tsarin tarihin, sassan abinci na ruwa suna daidai da layin kwano da ake kira isopicnas, kuma isohalins suna haɗu da maki daidai da salinity ruwan. Isobathytherms yana mai da hankali kan yanayin zafi daidai a teku.

Lantarki: electrostatics a sararin samaniya galibi ana nuna shi tare da keɓaɓɓen taswira. Hanyar da ke shiga cikin maki tare da karfin wutar lantarki ana kiranta shi da layi ko kadaici.

Halin alamun layin kwano a cikin taswira

Taswirar kwango ba wai kawai wakilci bane na hawan kai ba, ko jagorar hawan ko zurfin yankuna, amma manyan abubuwan isolines suna ba da damar fahimtar kyakkyawar yanayin wuraren da aka tsara. Ga wasu karin bayanai wadanda akasari ake amfani dasu a taswira:

  • Irin layi: Ana iya dotted, mai ƙarfi ko gudu. Ana yin amfani da layin tika ko gudu lokacin da akwai bayani akan kwano mai tushe wanda layin zai iya nunawa.
  • Kauri layin: Ya danganta yadda aka jawo layin ko ƙaƙƙarfan layin. Kwananan taswira ana ɗaukar su tare da layi mai kauri dabam dabam don nuna halaye ko lambobi daban-daban a iyakar tudun yankin.
  • Launi layin: Wannan nau'in murda kwanon shading yana canzawa cikin jagora don gane shi daga kwano mai tushe. Hakanan ana amfani da shayin layi azaman madadin halayen ƙira.
  • Lambar lambobi: Yana da mahimmanci a duk taswirar katako. Yawancin lokaci ana yin sa kusa da layin kwano ko na iya bayyana a cikin kwanewar mai jagora. Valueimar lamba tana taimakawa wajen rarrabe nau'in gangara.

Kayan Taswirar Taswira

Taswirar takarda ta al'ada ba ita ce hanyar da za a iya tsara isolines ko conours ba. Duk da cewa suna da mahimmanci, tare da ci gaba a cikin kerawa, taswirar yanzu suna cikin ingantaccen tsari. Akwai kayan kida da yawa, aikace-aikace masu yawa da kuma shirye-shirye masu sauƙi don taimakawa tare da wannan. Wadannan taswirar zasuyi zama daidai, cikin sauri don yin, za'a iya canza su yadda ya kamata kuma zaka iya tura su ga abokan aikin ka da abokan aiki! Na gaba, ana nuna wani ɓangaren waɗannan kayan aikin tare da taƙaitaccen bayanin

Google Maps

Taswirar Google mai ceton rai ne a duk duniya. Ana amfani dashi don bincika birni, da kuma wasu dalilai daban-daban. Yana da "ra'ayoyi" masu yawa ", misali: zirga-zirga, tauraron dan adam, topography, hanya, da dai sauransu. Kunna Layer «Landscape» Layer daga menu za optionsu options willukan zai baka damar yanayin yanayin (tare da layin kwano).

Gaia, ArcGIS, Backcountry Navigator (Aikace-aikacen aikace-aikacen)

Kamar sauran aikace-aikacen šaukuwa da yawa don duka Android da iOS, abokan ciniki na iPhone zasu iya amfani da Gaia GPS. Yana ba abokan ciniki taswirar tashoshi tare da nau'ikan daban-daban. Wadannan aikace-aikacen na iya zama kyauta ko biya gwargwadon iyawar da aka sanar. Ba'a amfani da aikace-aikacen Hanyoyi kawai don samun bayanan topographic ba, har ma suna da amfani sosai. Aikace-aikacen ArcGIS da aikace-aikacen ESRI daban-daban za'a iya amfani dasu kawai don dalilai na taswira.

Caltopo

Ba za ku iya yin wasa da duk iyawa akan wayoyin hannu ba, kuma wannan shine wuraren wuraren aiki da PC sune manyan jarumawa. Akwai matakan kan layi da daidaitawar shirye-shirye don taimaka muku gama aikinku na gaba. Captopo kayan aikin jagoranci ne wanda yake ba ku damar buga kwastomomin adanannoni. Bugu da kari, yana baka damar turawa / matsar dasu zuwa na'urar GPS ko wayoyin salula. Bugu da kari, yana tallafawa kirkirar abubuwa ko taswira tare da ba abokan ciniki daban.

Mytopo

Ana iya ganinta azaman mai ba da tallafi. Har zuwa wani abu kamar Caltopo (wanda aka ambata a sama), duk da haka, yana mai da hankali kan Kanada da Amurka (munyi imani da gaske cewa zasu haɗu da ƙasashe daban-daban!). Suna ba da cikakkun taswirar al'ada, gami da taswirar jama'a, hotunan tauraron dan adam da taswirar bangon fili na kowane yanki na Amurka. UU. Kyakkyawan taswira mai inganci sosai, wanda zaku iya kallo akan layi ba tare da tsada ba ko aika su azaman matakin farko na ƙaramin farashi.

Kuna iya rajistar ArcGIS Training Live on Edunbox tare da tallafin 24 / 7 da damar rayuwa.


Labarin haɗin gwiwa ne don TwinGEO, ta abokinmu Amit Sancheti, wanda ke aiki a matsayin babban jami'in SEO a Edunbox kuma a can ya gudanar da dukkan ayyukan da suka danganci SEO da rubuce-rubuce na abun ciki.

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