Tsarin sararin samaniya, 2011 jigo

Halin zafin jama'a zai kasance a cikin launi a wannan shekara -da kuma wadannan- saboda babu wani abu da yawa da za'a yi don magance mafita a duniya. Batun wannan shekara don National Geographics shine daidai yawan mutanen duniya a jajibirin daidaitawa zuwa biliyan 7. Batun Janairu shine na gargajiya mai tarawa.

natgeo

Cibiyar Lincoln Cibiyar Harkokin Gida ta Lincoln ta shirya abubuwa da dama da kayan bincike da suka fito daga wani karin nazarin wuraren 3,000 da suka wuce 2000 mazaunan 100,000 shekara. 

Littafin da na fi so shi ne abin da ake kira shirin biraneYin dakin duniyar birane. Wani rahoto mai ban sha'awa wanda ke nazarin abubuwan da suka gabata, yanzu da kuma makomar ci gaban birane a duniya. Yana ba da shawarar sabon yanayin yadda ya kamata mu shirya don ci gaban shekaru masu zuwa. 
Babban aiki na Angel, Shlomo, tare da Jason Parent, Daniel L. Civco, da Alejandro M. Blei.  Ana iya siyan shi a buga a kan $ 15 na US kuma zazzage shi cikin tsarin pdf kyauta (kawai kuna buƙatar rajista a shafin). Ga shekara ta 2012 fitowar wani abu da ake kira Ƙarin Faduna, wanda zai zama wani tsari mai ban sha'awa wanda ya kamata ya haɗa da samfurin Yarjejeniyar Gida, wannan ya tunatar da ni game da ka'idodi na CitiVilles na Facebook kuma cewa yana da haɗari wajen haifar da rikice-rikicen siyasa na musamman saboda ko da yake yana da ban sha'awa sosai, mutane da dama suna ganin shi a matsayin sabon tsarin mulkin mallaka.

Wani abun ciki na Cibiyar Lincoln, ko da yaushe a cikin wannan batu Atlas na fadada birane. Wannan tarin bayanai ne masu matukar mahimmanci don saukarwa dauke da taswirori cikin sifar hoto, kml da zanen gado na xls waɗanda suka zama tushen ginin -da sauransu- bayanan da aka ambata. Hakanan akwai bayanai a cikin tsarin GIS da za'a karanta daga shirin GIS.

An shirya wannan cikin sassa biyar:

1. Kashi na farko, akwai hotunan jpg a cikin nau'i nau'i-nau'i wanda aka zana su don bugawa akan fosta. Imageaya hoto yana ƙunshe da bayanan ƙididdiga da na hoto, sauran taswirar amfani da ƙasar birane waɗanda aka gina tare da dabarun hango nesa tare da hotunan tauraron ɗan adam a yankunan biranen 120 birane a cikin lokaci biyu: Daya an ɗauka kusan 1990 kuma na biyu shekaru 10 daga baya a 2000.

Taswirar tara-duniya-2000
Taswirar sama tana nuna wurin da biranen 120 suke, launuka sune yankuna yayin da aka rarraba karatun. Misali na bar muku biyun daga Madrid.

2000-madrid-map 2000-madrid

 

2. Kashi na biyu ya hada da nazarin tarihi mai zurfi na jama'a 25 birane, nazarin taswira daga 1800 zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni kawai ya ƙare. An rarraba waɗannan biranen 25, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin taswira mai zuwa: 7 a Amurka, 4 a Turai, 6 a Afirka, 12 a Asiya da 1 a Oceania.

map-tara-duniya-yankuna-tarihi

Hotunan da ke ƙasa misali ne na batun babban birni na Meziko. A gefen hagu akwai yankunan da ke cikin biranen da aka rufe daga 1807 zuwa 2000, kuma a hannun dama akwai bayanan yawan jama'a, hekta da aka rufe, zane-zane masu yawa da kuma tsohuwar taswira.

tarihi-mexico-birnin-map tarihi-mexico-birnin

3. Sashe na uku Ya haɗa da tebur a cikin Excel tare da duk bayanan da ke tallafawa aikin biranen 15 da 120. Na musamman, tunda masu tace Excel sun sauƙaƙe mana ganin wannan bayanan gwargwadon abubuwan da muke so.

4. Bangare na hudu ya haɗa da bayanan da za a duba a cikin shirye-shiryen GIS. Duk bangarorin yanki na mulki tare da yadudduka .shp .dbf da .shx don gani tare da kowane shiri, da fayilolin .prj don yanayin kasa, .img don nunawa da kuma ArcGIS.

5. Kashi na biyar Ya haɗa da bayanai na biranen 3,646 a cikin takardar Excel kuma a cikin fayil din km tare da dukan birane da aka yi nazarin, don ganin su da shirin GIS ko Google Earth.

A taƙaice, wani abu mai mahimmanci wanda zai iya zama da amfani sosai ga dalibai, jami'an gwamnati, masu bincike, masu tsarawa da kuma mutanen da ke cikin ci gaban tattalin arziki.

Dukkanin zane-zane da daftarin aiki suna ba da tsari mai ma'ana kuma, da alama a karon farko, ƙididdigar bayanai kan abubuwan da suka gabata, halin yanzu da kuma nan gaba na biranen birane a cikin biranen duniya. Yana buɗe yanayin ƙalubalen da ba mu san yadda za mu tunkari shekaru masu zuwa ba.

Domin yanzu ban ga idan zai yiwu a saya shi a CD ko DVD ba, don saukewa dole ne a yi kowane abu.

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